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Computer Institutes/Cybercafe

AVAILABLE COURSES 

INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER

WINDOWS 

MICROSOFT WORD

MICROSOFT EXCEL

MICROSOFT POWERPOINT

MICROSOFT OUTLOOK

MICROSOFT ACCESS

MICROSOFT PUBLISHER

PAGE-MAKER

COREL-DRAW

PAINT

PHOTO-SHOP ADOBE

INTERNET BROWSING

SOFTWARE INSTALLATIONS AND SYSTEM SET-UP

AND OTHER

 

 

COURSE MATERIALS/CONTENTS

 

INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER.

What is Computer? Is an electronic device (calculator) that accepts data, interprets and can use the data supplied to solve a problem based on information earlier given to it. We are all familiar with what a computer is in a specific, contemporary sense. Personal computers are found in most aspects of daily life and for some it is hard to even imagine a world without them. But the term computer means more than simply the Macs and PCs we are familiar with. A computer is, at its most basic, a machine which can take instructions, and perform computations based on those instructions given to it. A computer is a machine that manipulates data electronically according to a set of instructions

 

        AREAS OF APPLICATION OF COMPUTER.

  1. In military: For sending missiles and bombs.
  2. In school: For teaching acquisition (library) and for strong student data base. The capability of interacting with learners makes computers as powerful tools for enhancing the process of learning. In addition, computers also play an important role in searching information and school administration.
  3. Internet: Registration, checking mail.
  4. Communication: Telecommunication Industry.
  5. Business: Reservation transactions and file interrogation, in banking. Computers are widely used in business nowadays.
  6. Medical Diagnosis. Role of computers used in medicine, uses of computers in health care and importance of computers in medicine fields. The influence of computers is universal. Computers are used in applications ranging from running a farm, diagnosing a disease, and designing to constructing and launching a space vehicle. Because the development of computers has been largely the work of scientists, it is natural that a large body of computer applications serves the scientist. To solve scientific problems researchers must deal with the language of science: mathematics. To understand more deeply complex natural phenomena, scientists must use complex mathematical relationships and volumes of data too impossible to manage without the aid of computers. Many scientific computer programs serve the entire population. The links included herein relate to medicine and health care.
  7. Games: Recreation is another area of computer application. You can play electronic golf at home. You can play chess with the computer as your opponent. Some software combines entertainment and education. In this unit, we will describe different types of computer games and explain why they have 'intelligence', edutainment and special movie effects produced by computers.

Transportation: Although drafting tables and T-squares are still around, more and more engineers and architects are designing products with computers                               

 HISTORY

Abacus: Used in Eastern Europe and Asia about 5000years ago, for counting. It is an arrangements bead on strings. Along the parallel areas (rods) the counter are divides into section by means of a bar (strings) perpendicular to the rods.    

Eastern abacus

The simple abacus has ten beads per column. It isn't really used any more for calculation, although children sometimes use them to learn about numbers. Abacuses are still used in the Far East, but they look more like the abacus below.

The zero position is for all beads to be away from the central bar, as the beads on the left are. The top two beads represent five each, and the bottom beads represent one. The unit’s column has a single 'one' bead and no 'five' beads, so this is one. The tens column has one 'five' bead and two 'one beads, representing 70. The hundreds has a 'five' bead alone, so that is 500. Then there is 3000 and 60,000. So the total number is 63,571.

This sort of abacus is easier to use, as the human eye finds it a lot easier to detect five beads or less, rather than larger numbers up to ten. You can quickly see the difference between 7 (a 'five' and two 'one's) and 8 (a 'five' and three 'one's), but 7 and 8 look similar on the simple abacus. You can see that the Romans would like this sort of abacus, as they had a symbol for five as well as a symbol for one. You may wonder why there are two fives as well as five ones, allowing a value up to fifteen in a single column. It's for much the same reason as the simple abacus having ten beads in a column. It allows you to store a number before having to carry it.

Below is an abacus of this type for you to play with. Click on the beads to move them

2.      Astrolabe :

The astrolabe is a very ancient astronomical computer for solving problems relating to time and the position of the Sun and stars in the sky. Several types of astrolabes have been made. By far the most popular type is the planispheric astrolabe, on which the celestial sphere is projected onto the plane of the equator. A typical old astrolabe was made of brass and was about 6 inches (15 cm) in diameter, although much larger and smaller ones were made.

Astrolabes are used to show how the sky looks at a specific place at a given time. This is done by drawing the sky on the face of the astrolabe and marking it so positions in the sky are easy to find. To use an astrolabe, you adjust the moveable components to a specific date and time. Once set, the entire sky, both visible and invisible, is represented on the face of the instrument. This allows a great many astronomical problems to be solved in a very visual way. Typical uses of the astrolabe include finding the time during the day or night, finding the time of a celestial event such as sunrise or sunset and as a handy reference of celestial positions. Astrolabes were also one of the basic astronomy education tools in the late Middle Ages. Old instruments were also used for astrological purposes. The typical astrolabe was not a navigational instrument although an instrument called the mariner's astrolabe was widely used. The mariner's astrolabe is simply a ring marked in degrees for measuring celestial altitudes.

The history of the astrolabe begins more than two thousand years ago. The principles of the astrolabe projection were known before 150 B.C., and true astrolabes were made before A.D. 400. The astrolabe was highly developed in the Islamic world by 800 and was introduced to Europe from Islamic Spain (Andalusia) in the early 12th century. It was the most popular astronomical instrument until about 1650, when it was replaced by more specialized and accurate instruments. Astrolabes are still appreciated for their unique capabilities and their value for astronomy education.

3.BLAISE PASCAL: A 19years old French boy, 1642, while helping his father on the farm (trade) inverted the PASCALINE. A machine that could  perform only additions and subtraction.
(Blaise Pascal Full name Blaise Pascal Born June 19, 1623(1623-06-19)
Died August 19, 1662 (aged 39) School/tradition Continental Philosophy, precursor to existentialism Main interests Theology, Mathematics Notable ideas Pascal's Wager, Pascal's triangle, Pascal's law)

4.Sir Morland: In England unaware of Pascal’s invention, invented three machines out of which one was used for calculation of pounds & strillings and the other two provided access to pre-calculated table (1668-1666). A non-decimal adding machine (working with English pounds, shillings and pence)

a machine that made trigonometric calculations

"A new Multiplying Instrument" invented by Samuel Morland, 1666

an 'arithmetical machine' by which the four fundamental rules of arithmetic were readily worked "without charging the memory, disturbing the mind, or exposing the operations to any uncertainty" (regarded by some as the world's first multiplying machine, an example is in the Science Museum in South Kensington).

5.   GOTTFRIED WILHELM LEIBNIZ: 1690 invented the STEPPED GEAR OR STEPPED RECKONER. His machine could, in addition to additions and subtractions, perform division, multiplication and extraction of square roots.

6. CHARLES BABBAGE: He is the first to introduce electricity into computer, He invented a proto- type of what is known today as a computer, His machine the ANALTRICAL ENGINE has in it the resemblance of all component of a today computer e.g. punched card. CHARLES BABBAGE (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer who originated the concept of a programmable computer. Parts of his uncompleted mechanisms are on display in the London Science Museum. In 1991, a perfectly functioning difference engine was constructed from Babbage's original plans. Built to tolerances achievable in the 19th century, the success of the finished engine indicated that Babbage's machine would have worked. Nine years later, the Science Museum completed the printer Babbage had designed for the difference engine, an astonishingly complex device for the 19th century. Considered a "father of the computer" Babbage is credited with inventing the first mechanical computer that eventually led to more complex designs. Soon after the attempt at making the difference engine crumbled, Babbage started designing a different, more complex machine called the Analytical Engine. The engine is not a single physical machine but a succession of designs that he tinkered with until his death in 1871. The main difference between the two engines is that the Analytical Engine could be programmed using punch cards. He realized that programs could be put on these cards so the person had only to create the program initially, and then put the cards in the machine and let it run. The analytical engine would have used loops of Jacquard's punched cards to control a mechanical calculator, which could formulate results based on the results of preceding computations. This machine was also intended to employ several features subsequently used in modern computers, including sequential control, branching, and looping, and would have been the first mechanical device to be Turing-complete.

GORGE BOOLE: The essay written by George Boole is the basis for all computers programming and logical codes. As the inventor of Boolean logic, which is the basis of modern digital computer logic, Boole is regarded in hindsight as one of the founders of the field of computer science. Boole said,

... no general method for the solution of questions in the theory of probabilities can be established which does not explicitly recognize ... those universal laws of thought which are the bases of all reasoning. George Boole's father, John Boole (1779–1848), was a tradesman of limited means, but of "studious character and active mind". Being especially interested in mathematical science and logic, the father gave his son his first lessons; but the extraordinary mathematical talents of George Boole did not manifest themselves in early life. Boole's work (as well as that of his intellectual progeny) was relatively obscure, except among logicians. At the time, it appeared to have no practical uses. However, approximately seventy years after Boole's death, Claude Shannon attended a philosophy class at the University of Michigan which introduced him to Boole's studies. Shannon recognized that Boole's work could form the basis of mechanisms and processes in the real world and that it was therefore highly relevant.

HERMAN HOLLERITH: (February 29, 1860 – November 17, 1929) was a German-American statistician who developed a mechanical tabulator based on punched cards in order to rapidly tabulate statistics from millions of pieces of data. He was the founder of the company that became IBM.  In 1880 developed the punched card (An American) while working with the census body in 1880. His machine was able to complete in the 1years and 7 months, what could have taken 100 clerks 10years and 11 months to complete. Hollerith had left teaching and begun working for the United States Census Office in the year he filed his first patent application. Titled "Art of Compiling Statistics", it was filed on September 23, 1884; U.S. Patent No. 395782 was granted on January 8, 1889.[4]

Hollerith built machines under contract for the Census Office, which used them to tabulate the 1890 census in only one year.[5] The 1880 census had taken eight years. Hollerith then started his own business in 1896, founding the Tabulating Machine Company. Most of the major census bureaus around the world leased his equipment and purchased his cards, as did major insurance companies. To make his system work, he invented the first automatic card-feed mechanism and the first key punch (i.e. a punch that was operated from a keyboard), which allowed a skilled operator to punch 200–300 cards per hour. He also invented a tabulator. The 1890 Tabulator was hardwired to operate only on 1890 Census cards. A control panel in his 1906 Type I Tabulator allowed it to do different jobs without having to be rebuilt (the first step towards programming).These inventions were the foundation of the modern information processing industry.

In 1911, four corporations, including Hollerith's firm, merged to form the Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation (CTR).[6] Under the presidency of Thomas J. Watson, it was renamed International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) in 1924.

JOHN V.ATANASOFE: John Vincent Atanasoff (IPA: [ata'nasɔf]) (October 4, 1903 – June 15, 1995) was an American physicist. The 1973 decision of the patent suit Honeywell v. Sperry Rand named him the inventor of the first automatic electronic digital computer, a special-purpose machine that has come to be called the Atanasoff–Berry Computer.

The son of a Bulgarian immigrant who became an electrical engineer, Atanasoff held positions as a teaching professor, a governmental wartime research director, and a corporate research executive before being recognized in the 1970s and 1980s for digital electronic computer research he conducted at Iowa State College in the late 1930s and early 1940s. They invented Eniac (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator).

GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER

Since the development of the mark the digital computer has evolved at extremely rapid pace the secession. The advances in computer hardware most notably in logic circuit and storage systems are generally discussed in terms of concept of generation.

      Each stage of development is associated with one fort of technologies innovation or another each generation is usually better than the previous by making possible certain which were not possible with the earlier generation.

First generation: J.P.E.C kert and manchly ushered in the first generation of modern day computers with.

FIRST GENERATION OF COMPUTER (vacuum tube 1940-1956):

The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. A magnetic drum, also referred to as drum, is a metal cylinder coated with

iron-oxide material on which data and programs can be stored. Magnetic drums were once used as a primary storage device but have since been implemented as auxiliary storage devices. The tracks on a magnetic drum are assigned to channels located around the circumference of the drum, forming adjacent circular bands that wind around the drum. A single drum can have up to 200 tracks. As the drum rotates at a speed of up to 3,000 rpm, the device’s read/write heads deposit magnetized spots on the drum during the write operation and sense these spots during a read operation. This action is similar to that of a magnetic tape or disk drive.

They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions. First generation computers relied on machine language to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. Machine languages are the only languages understood by computers. While easily understood by computers, machine languages are almost impossible for humans to use because they consist entirely of numbers. Programmers therefore, use either a high-level programming language or an assembly language. An assembly language contains the same instructions as a machine language, but the instructions and variables have names instead of being just numbers.

Programs written in high-level languages are translated into assembly language or machine language by a compiler. Assembly language programs are translated into machine language by a program called an assembler.

ENTAC (Electronic Numerical Interior And Calculator) in 1976 it was the first all purpose all electronic digital computer, unlike earlier machine it used vacuum tubes instead of relays as its active logic element there was substantial increase in computational speed due to the use of electron tube –this computer was more than 1000 times faster than its electron chemical processors could execute an average of 50 basic arithmetic operation per second.

In 1947 the Hungarian mathematics John, Von Newman devised a method of covering the ENTAC concepts of an externally programmed concept this stored. Program concept led to the development of the self modifying computer. Electronic digital computer include UNIVAC -1(Universal automatic computer) built in 1951 this also utilized vacuum tubes) its mean memory consist of mercury relay lines

SECOND GENERATION :( 1956-1963: Transistors)

This generation was between late fifties and early sixties invention of semi conductor devices know as TRANSISTORS in electronic engineering led to the development of this generation of computers. Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. Transistor is a device composed of semiconductor material that amplifies a signal or opens or closes a circuit. Invented in 1947at Bell Labs, transistors have become the key ingredient of all digital circuits, including computers. Today's microprocessors contain tens of millions of microscopic transistors.

After a series of development in transistors for about 10 years, it becomes a viable alternative to the vacuum tubes the small size of the transistor, it greater rehabilitee and its comparatively low power consumption made it for superior to the latter.

THIRD GENERATION (Integrated Circuits 1964-1971)

During late 1960 and 1970 an important technology innovations resulting in dramatic advances in computers hardware the break through in the fabrication integrated cycle of the (integrated circlet)(IC) a solid state device consisting of hundreds of transistors diodes, and resistors in a tiny silicon chip the impact of integrated circuitry permitted the construction of integrated main frame (large scale) computer of higher operating speed capacity reliability at substantially lover cost it also helped the engineers to design mini computers. The next major development was large scale integration(LSI)which made it possible to pack thousands of transistors and related devices on a single integrated circuit this also led to the invention the me nor processor which is an integrated circuit on a single silicon chip that contain all the arithmetic, logic and control circuitry which make up a digital computer C.P.U the C.P.U (central processing unit)is the part of the digital computer that interprete and executed instruction the development of the      C.P.U into a single integrate circuit led to the production of micro computers

FOURTH GENERATION (1971-Present: Microprocessors)

The sets of computers produced in the 1980s were referred to as fourth generation computers there is His clear difference between their and the third generation. The major distinguishing characteristic feature is attributed to the availability of the VERY LARGE-SCALE INTEGRATED (VLSI) as compared to is of the third generation. This technology has vastly increase the circuit density of micro processor memory and support chips worth of note’s is the fact that very large scale integrated circuit contain thousand of computers in a silicon ship less than 0.2 inch (5mm) square the very large scale integrated circuit hold hundreds of thousands of electron component within the same amount of space (A micro processor- is a central processing unit fabricated or a chip).

   This generation interested the flooding of the market within the a wide variety of soft ware tools like database, management system, word processing, package spread , sheet package, game package etc. it also witnessed the enhancement on networking capabilities in the areas of LAN (Local Areas Network) very large and high sea

FIFTH GENERATION (Present and Beyond: Artificial Intelligence)

This generation of computers is yet to be in the market because of the features excepted that the architecture of his generation will be a bit different from Von Neumann’s model of the previous generation.

Artificial Intelligence (AD) should be major feature of his generation such machines world have the capability to reasons to recognize relationships and to learn and improve their performance on the basic of experience. It also expected that they would not have to be resonated step by step as to carry out specific tasks as required by current computer. Artificial Intelligence is the branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Artificial intelligence includes:

Ø      Games Playing: Programming computers to play games such as chess and checkers

Ø      Expert Systems: Programming computers to make decisions in real-life situations (for example, some expert systems help doctors diagnose diseases based on symptoms

Ø      Natural Language: Programming computers to understand natural human languages

Ø      Neural Networks: Systems that simulate intelligence by attempting to reproduce the types of physical connections that occur in animal brains

Ø      Robotics: Programming computers to see and hear and react to other sensory stimuli

Currently, no computers exhibit full artificial intelligence (that is, are able to simulate human behavior). The greatest advances have occurred in the field of games playing. The best computer chess programs are now capable of beating humans. In May, 1997, an IBM super-computer called Deep Blue defeated world chess champion Gary Kasparov in a chess match

TYPE OF COMPUTER 

Computers are categories base on different properties or characteristic conventionally. However they are categories in two basic groups.

1.      Based on evolution and Capacity (classes). This group is known as classes of computers.

2.      Based on mode of Operations (Types). This group is known as types of computers.

CLASSES OF COMPUTER

MAINFRAME COMPUTER:

These are the first set of electronic mechanical type of Computers that constituted the first generation of computers. Multi-user. Requires special environment (air-conditioning) and possibly water cooling. Requires special power supply. IBM 360, Burroughs, ICL 1900.

CHARACTERISTICS

a.      Were very big “Big size” Occupy large floor area.

b.      Generate a lot of heat

c.       Consume lot of power

d.      They are internal memory good up to 4mb

e.      They are operated by professionals.

MINI COMPUTER:

The second generation of computers. 16 or 32 bit CPU, but not a microprocessor chip. May run a multi-user operating system. Connected to serial terminals. May require special environment, i.e. air-conditioning or special power. DEC PDP-8, DEC PDP-11, HP 2100, HLH Orion, Prime, DEC VAX

                     CHARACTERISTICS

a.            About the size of a refrigerator.

b.            Generate less heat than the main frame.

c.             Internal memory up to about 1mb

d.            They are operated from terminals.

MICRO COMPUTER:

Includes third, fourth and fifth generations of computer. They make use of integrated circuit in their CPU. Microprocessor-based machine designed for home use. Built-in video display for use with domestic TV. Data and program storage on audio cassettes, possibly with a ROM cartridge port. Very often running BASIC from ROM. Cased with power supply (possibly external wall-wart). 16 or 32 bit CPU, UNIX, bit-mapped graphics, networking, hard disk. Single user. UNIX operating system, window system. No special environment or power supply required

                 CHARACTERISTICS

a.            They consume the least power

b.            They are very mobile

c.             They generate least heat of all the other categories.

SUPERCOMPUTER

Very fast computer utilizing special techniques of design and construction to maximize power. May be highly parallel or massively parallel. Requires special environment (air-conditioning) and probably water cooling. Requires special power supply. CDC 6600, Cray-1, CDC Cyber, transporter machines.

TYPE OF COMPUTER

  1. Analogue computer
  2. Digital computer
  3. Hybrid computer

 

ANALOGUE COMPUTER:

Mechanical analog computers were very important in gun fire control in World War II and the Korean War; they were made in significant numbers. In particular, development of transistors made electronic analog computers practical, and before digital computers had developed sufficiently, they were commonly used in science and industry.

Analog computers can have a very wide range of complexity. Slide rules and monographs are the simplest, while naval gun fire control computers and large hybrid digital/analogue computers were among the most complicated. Digital computers have a certain minimum (and relatively great) degree of complexity that is far greater than that of the simpler analog computers. This complexity is required to execute their stored programs, and in many instances for creating output that is directly suited to human use.

Is a computer that makes use of similarities in proportions of physical content (qualities e.g. current motion bag or mechanical barometer, Analogue phone, Analog clock). They make use of continuous physical changes. -  

DIGITAL COMPUTER:

Is a computer that utilizes discrete (discontinuous) assessment of physical quantities (particles) .A digital computer reads or understands everything as land so that is, binary operations

Example: 6 to binary operation=1101

In 6=4 bytes

A digit complete 8 bits a(e.g.)a,s,2,1,8,9,0,;,”,!)

8 digit binary usually a 2000 and a digit 2014

                                         1101{0000}

 Digit zone zero zone

DIGITAL COMPUTER MEMORY QUANTIFICATION

8 bits

1 kb

1kb=1024 or 2110x1 byte

1024bx1024b=1mb

(210x210) byte =220 byte =GB

How many kilo bytes are in 1mb?

1mb=1024 byte x 1024 byte

HYBRID COMPUTER:

Is the selective combination of analogue and digital computer? Here is an intermediate device, a 'hybrid' computer, in which an analog output is converted into standard digits. The information then can be sent into a standard digital computer for further computation. Because of their ease of use and because of technological breakthroughs in digital computers in the early 70s, the analog-digital hybrids were replacing the analog-only systems. Hybrid computers are used to obtain a very accurate but not very mathematically precise 'seed' value, using an analog computer front-end, which value is then fed into a digital computer, using an iterative process to achieve the final desired degree of precision. With a three or four digit precision, highly-accurate numerical seed, the total computation time necessary to reach the desired precision is dramatically reduced, since many fewer digital iterations are required (and the analog computer reaches its result almost instantaneously). Or, for example, the analog computer might be used to solve a non-analytic differential equation problem for use at some stage of an overall computation (where precision is not very important). In any case, the hybrid computer is usually substantially faster than a digital computer, but can supply a far more precise computation than an analog computer. It is useful for real-time applications requiring such a combination (e.g., a high frequency phased-array radar or a weather system computation).

*digital is faster and more accurate.

*Analogue is total in control.

1mb=1kb +1kb = (1kb2) =1024.kb

To byte= (1024)2 bite

=1024x1kb

= (1024.x1024) byte

=1024kb

=210kb

THE HARDWARE COMPONENTS

The hardware are the parts of computer itself including the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and related microchips and micro-circuitry, keyboards, monitors, case and drives (hard, CD, DVD, floppy, optical, tape, etc...). Other extra parts called peripheral components or devices include mouse, printers, modems, scanners, digital cameras and cards (sound, colour, video) etc... Together they are often referred to as a personal computer.

<b>Central Processing Unit</b> - Though the term relates to a specific chip or the processor a CPU's performance is determined by the rest of the computer's circuitry and chips.

Currently the Pentium chip or processor, made by Intel, is the most common CPU though there are many other companies that produce processors for personal computers. Examples are the CPU made by Motorola and AMD.

CONVENTIONAL HARDWARE COMPONENTS CLASSIFICATION  

  1. THE CPU
  2. PERIPHERAL UNIT           

CPU

The hardware components are those parts of the computer system that you can touch and feel (physical parts)

The hardware components can be divided into two major parts namely:

1)      The central processing unit

2)      The peripheral unit

The central processing unit is the heart of the computer system without which any computer can not work. It is the main panel or board working on the system.

The CPU is therefore divided into three major parts MU, ALU & CU.

MU: Memory Unit the stores and allows smooth transmissions of signal or information within the system. The MU stores a character e.g. 1, 2, 3……. 0 or a, b, c….z or, Etc.

Using an 8bit or a byte arranged into a digit zone (4bits) and zero zone (4bits) as 1s

and 0s.

MEMORY UNIT

                                   TYPE OF MEMORY

  1. Primary/ Main memory: This is permanently fixed on the CPU and as a part of the CPU e.g. ROM and RAM.
  2. Auxiliary/ Second Memory: This is additional memory (usually slots) to enhance the smooth, operations of the system. E.g. hard disk, CD flash and so on storage devices

ROM- Read Only Memory

RAM- Random Access Memory.

Access width: This is the numbers of signal that are allowed to be transmitted from one point to the other, at a time.

BUS: This is a metallic conductor that carries signals from one point to another

                                  TYPES OF BUSES

  1. INTERNAL BUS: Transmits signal within  the CPU
  2. EXTERNAL BUS: Carries signals form the CPU to the peripheral units.

CU: The Control Unit co-ordinate the step by step operation of the CPU or the system as a whole.

ALU: Arithmetic and Logic Units Arithmetic –for calculation logic- for decisions or logical operation of the computer system.

THE PERIPHERAL UNIT:

This is the additional parts to the CPU and it’s divided into OUTPUT UNIT and INPUT UNIT.

OUTPUT UNIT: These are set of devices that are used to retrieve or extract or get out information from the computer system (CPU) e.g. monitor, printer.

INPUT UNIT: For feeding the computer with relevant information e.g. disk (CD) scanner, keyboard.

GENERALIZED HARDWARE COMPONENTS (NON-CONVENTIONAL)

With faster processors the clock speed becomes more important. Compared to some of the first computers which operated at below 30 megahertz (MHz) the Pentium chips began at 75 MHz in the late 1990's. Speeds now exceed 3000+ MHz or 3 gigahertz (GHz) and different chip manufacturers use different measuring standards (check your local computer store for the latest speed). It depends on the circuit board that the chip is housed in, or the motherboard, as to whether you are able to upgrade to a faster chip. The motherboard contains the circuitry and connections that allow the various components to communicate with each other.

Though there were many computers using many different processors previous to this I call the 80286 processor the advent of home computers as these were the processors that made computers available for the average person. Using a processor before the 286 involved learning a proprietary system and software. Most new software is being developed for the newest and fastest processors so it can be difficult to use an older computer system.

Keyboard - The keyboard is used to type information into the computer or input information. There are many different keyboard layouts and sizes with the most common for Latin based languages being the QWERTY layout (named for the first 6 keys). The standard keyboard has 101 keys. Notebooks have embedded keys accessible by special keys or by pressing key combinations (CTRL or Command and P for example). Ergonomically designed keyboards are designed to make typing easier. Hand held devices have various and different keyboard configurations and touch screens.

Some of the keys have a special use. There are referred to as command keys. The 3 most common are the Control or CTRL, Alternate or Alt and the Shift keys though there can be more (the Windows key for example or the Command key). Each key on a standard keyboard has one or two characters. Press the key to get the lower character and hold Shift to get the upper.

Removable Storage and/or Disk Drives - All disks need a drive to get information off - or read - and put information on the disk - or write. Each drive is designed for a specific type of disk whether it is a CD, DVD, hard disk or floppy. Often the term 'disk' and 'drive' are used to describe the same thing but it helps to understand that the disk is the storage device which contains computer files - or software - and the drive is the mechanism that runs the disk.

Digital flash drives work slightly differently as they use memory cards to store information so there are no moving parts. Digital cameras also use Flash memory cards to store information, in this case photographs. Hand held devices use digital drives and many also use memory cards.

Mouse - Most modern computers today are run using a mouse controlled pointer. Generally if the mouse has two buttons the left one is used to select objects and text and the right one is used to access menus. If the mouse has one button (Mac for instance) it controls all the activity and a mouse with a third button can be used by specific software programs.

One type of mouse has a round ball under the bottom of the mouse that rolls and turns two wheels which control the direction of the pointer on the screen. Another type of mouse uses an optical system to track the movement of the mouse. Laptop computers use touch pads, buttons and other devices to control the pointer. Hand held use a combination of devices to control the pointer, including touch screens.

Note: It is important to clean the mouse periodically, particularly if it becomes sluggish. A ball type mouse has a small circular panel that can be opened, allowing you to remove the ball. Lint can be removed carefully with a tooth pick or tweezers and the ball can be washed with mild detergent. A build up will accumulate on the small wheels in the mouse. Use a small instrument or finger nail to scrape it off taking care not to scratch the wheels. Track balls can be cleaned much like a mouse and touch-pad can be wiped with a clean, damp cloth. An optical mouse can accumulate material from the surface that it is in contact with which can be removed with a finger nail or small instrument.

<b>Monitors</b> - The monitor shows information on the screen when you type. This is called outputting information. When the computer needs more information it will display a message on the screen, usually through a dialog box. Monitors come in many types and sizes. The resolution of the monitor determines the sharpness of the screen. The resolution can be adjusted to control the screen's display.

Most desktop computers use a monitor with a cathode tube or liquid crystal display. Most notebooks use a liquid crystal display monitor.

To get the full benefit of today's software with full colour graphics and animation, computers need a color monitor with a display or graphics card.

<b>Printers</b> - The printer takes the information on your screen and transfers it to paper or a hard copy. There are many different types of printers with various levels of quality. The three basic types of printer are; dot matrix, inkjet, and laser.

  • Dot matrix printers work like a typewriter transferring ink from a ribbon to paper with a series or 'matrix' of tiny pins.
  • An ink jet printer work like dot matrix printers but fires a stream of ink from a cartridge directly onto the paper.
  • Laser printers use the same technology as a photocopier using heat to transfer toner onto paper.

Modem - A modem is used to translate information transferred through telephone lines, cable or line-of-site wireless.

The term stands for modulate and demodulate which changes the signal from digital, which computers use, to analog, which telephones use and then back again. Digital modems transfer digital information directly without changing to analog.

Modems are measured by the speed that the information is transferred. The measuring tool is called the baud rate. Originally modems worked at speeds below 2400 baud but today analog speeds of 56,000 are standard. Cable, wireless or digital subscriber lines can transfer information much faster with rates of 300,000 baud and up.

Modems also use Error Correction which corrects for transmission errors by constantly checking whether the information was received properly or not and Compression which allows for faster data transfer rates. Information is transferred in packets. Each packet is checked for errors and is re-sent if there is an error.

Anyone who has used the Internet has noticed that at times the information travels at different speeds. Depending on the amount of information that is being transferred, the information will arrive at it's destination at different times. The amount of information that can travel through a line is limited. This limit is called bandwidth.

There are many more variables involved in communication technology using computers, much of which is covered in the section on the Internet.

Scanners- Scanners allow you to transfer pictures and photographs to your computer. A scanner 'scans' the image from the top to the bottom, one line at a time and transfers it to the computer as a series of bits or a bitmap. You can then take that image and use it in a paint program, send it out as a fax or print it. With optional Optical Character Recognition (OCR) software you can convert printed documents such as newspaper articles to text that can be used in your word processor. Most scanners use TWAIN software that makes the scanner accessible by other software applications.

Digital cameras allow you to take digital photographs. The images are stored on a memory chip or disk that can be transferred to your computer. Some cameras can also capture sound and video.

<b>Case</b> - The case houses the microchips and circuitry that run the computer. Desktop models usually sit under the monitor and tower models beside. They come in many sizes, including desktop, mini, midi, and full tower. There is usually room inside to expand or add components at a later time. By removing the cover off the case you may find plate covered empty slots that allow you to add cards. There are various types of slots including IDE, ASI, USB, PCI and Fire wire slots.

Depending on the type notebook computers may have room to expand. Most Notebooks also have connections or ports that allow expansion or connection to exterior, peripheral devices such as monitor, portable hard-drives or other devices.

<b>Cards</b> - Cards are components added to computers to increase their capability. When adding a peripheral device makes sure that your computer has a slot of the type needed by the device.

Sound cards allow computers to produce sound like music and voice. The older sound cards were 8 bit then 16 bit then 32 bit. Though the human ear can't distinguish the fine difference between sounds produced by the more powerful sound card they allow for more complex music and music production.

Colour cards allow computers to produce colour (with a colour monitor of course). The first colour cards were 2 bit which produced 4 colours [CGA]. It was amazing what could be done with those 4 colours. Next came 4 bit allowing for 16 [EGA and VGA] colours. Then came 16 bit allowing for 1064 colours and then 24 bit which allows for almost 17 million colours and now 32 bit and higher allow monitors to display almost a billion separate colours.

Video cards allow computers to display video and animation. Some video cards allow computers to display television as well as capture frames from video. A video card with a digital video camera allows computers users to produce live video. A high speed connection is required for effective video transmission.

Network cards allow computers to connect together to communicate with each other. Network cards have connections for cable, thin wire or wireless networks. For more information see the section on Networks.

Cables connect internal components to the Motherboard, which is a board with series of electronic path ways and connections allowing the CPU to communicate with the other components of the computer.

<b>Memory</b> - Memory can be very confusing but is usually one of the easiest pieces of hardware to add to your computer. It is common to confuse chip memory with disk storage. An example of the difference between memory and storage would be the difference between a table where the actual work is done (memory) and a filing cabinet where the finished product is stored (disk). To add a bit more confusion, the computer's hard disk can be used as temporary memory when the program needs more than the chips can provide.

Random Access Memory or RAM is the memory that the computer uses to temporarily store the information as it is being processed. The more information being processed the more RAMS the computer needs.

One of the first home computers used 64 kilobytes of RAM memory (Commodore 64). Today's modern computers need a minimum of 64 Mb (recommended 128 Mb or more) to run Windows or OS 10 with modern software.

RAM memory chips come in many different sizes and speeds and can usually be expanded. Older computers came with 512 Kb of memory which could be expanded to a maximum of 640 Kb. In most modern computers the memory can be expanded by adding or replacing the memory chips depending on the processor you have and the type of memory your computer uses. Memory chips range in size from 1 Mb to 4 Gb. As computer technology changes the type of memory changes as well making old memory chips obsolete. Check your computer manual to find out what kind of memory your computer uses before purchasing new memory chips.

THE SOFTWARE COMPONENTS

Software is a generic term for all sort of program that runs on the hard ware system. The hard ware System on its own it is gust a bunch of electrical gadgets which at most could deliver a fatal electrical shock at most when powered.

It is the software that drives the hardware.

The software is designed to exploit and potential capabilities of the hardware to the intending user. Component-based software engineering (CBSE) (also known as component-based development (CBD)) is a branch of software engineering, the priority of which is the separation of concerns in respect of the wide-ranging functionality available throughout a given software system. This practice brings about an equally wide-ranging degree of benefits in both the short-term and the long-term for the software itself and the organization that sponsors it.

Components are considered to be part of the starting platform for service orientation throughout software engineering, for example Web Services, and more recently, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) - whereby a component is converted into a service and subsequently inherits further characteristics beyond that of an ordinary component. Components can produce events or consume events and can be used for event driven architecture (EDA).                                

CLASSIFICATION

Software are classified into two major group

  1. system program
  2. Application program.

SYSTEM PROGRAM:

These refer to be the suite program that facilities the optimal use of the hardware.

System and or provide suitable environment for the Writing editing bagging testing and kinking of program

Usually every computer system comes with a collection of these suites of program which are provided by the hardware manufactures. They constitute an essential part of any computer system. Examples of these class or program are:

The operating system, the language process or loaded Editor etc he will deliberate on some of them below.

OPERATING SYSTEM:

An operating system (OS) is a suite of program acting as an interface between the uses of computers on one hand and the hardware on the other.

It provides the uses with features that make it easily for him to code, test execute, debug and maintain his program while efficiently managing the hardware resources one of the suite called the EXECUTIVE PROGRAM

Remain resident in the main store and controls all other program running a user program involves several step hear.

  1. Irritation of language processor
  2. Provision of data.
  3. Irritation of executive of object program
  4. Removal of result if a computer system has no us it follows that most of these tasks will be carried out by the operator. In essence the processor will idle most of the time which again will affect the thought output of the system.

THE SOFTWARE COMPONENT

LANGUAGE TRANSLATOR:

There are programs that translate individuals (operator) language etc machine language. They make available signal supplied by the operator to the machine and vice versa.

These are three type of Language Translator

a.       Assembler: Send signal line by line.

b.      Interpreter: This is specific for BASIC programming all purpose symbolic instruction is different from PASCAL used for calculation.

c.       Complement: It is up to date L.T can program in any language e.g. systematic meaning syntax (sound) lexical structure or code.

ULTILITY SOFTWARE

These enhance operation of the cds by making possible certain things that over not possible with the C.D only example are:  (word to word)

a.      FILE COPY. Enables copying file from one application to another.

b.      FILE CONVERSION: Copy one file frown once application e.g. Ms-word to Corel draw

c.       FILE INTERROGATION: Accessing in data base formats.

d.      ROUTINE CHECKS: Monitor system operations.

e.       LIBRARY PROGRAM: That work as the one for solves a particular problem stored and controls all other programs running.

A user program involves of several step like:

·        Initiation of language processor.

·        Provision of data.

·        Initiation of execution of object program

·        Removal of result in computer has now it follows that’s most of the time which again will affect thought out print of the system.

APPLICATION PACKAGES.

Are purchased programs of packages to enhance the operation of yours system.

 

                     TYPES

  1. Word processing package e.g. word perfect, MS word
  2. Spreadsheet .P: e.g. Excel.
  3. Database: M.S access
  4. Graphic e.g. Corel draw, Power Point, paints etc
  5. Integrated programs e.g.  M.S office.
  6. Utility Software: Anti-virus, Diagnostics Software.

VIRUSES

A computer virus is a program or code capable of attacking itself to other program (HOST) which eventually attack the Host programs and possibly damage the software components. A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer. The term "virus" is also commonly but erroneously used to refer to other types of malware, adware, and spyware programs that do not have the reproductive ability. A true virus can only spread from one computer to another (in some form of executable code) when its host is taken to the target computer; for instance because a user sent it over a network or the Internet, or carried it on a removable medium such as a floppy disk, CD, DVD, or USB drive. Viruses can increase their chances of spreading to other computers by infecting files on a network file system or a file system that is accessed by another computer.

The term "computer virus" is sometimes used as a catch-all phrase to include all types of malware. Malware includes computer viruses, worms, Trojans, most root kits, spyware, dishonest adware, crimeware, and other malicious and unwanted software, including true viruses. Viruses are sometimes confused with computer worms and Trojan horses, which are technically different. A worm can exploit security vulnerabilities to spread itself to other computers without needing to be transferred as part of a host, and a Trojan horse is a program that appears harmless but has a hidden agenda. Worms and Trojans, like viruses, may cause harm to a computer system's hosted data, functional performance, or networking throughput, when they are executed. Some viruses and other malware have symptoms noticeable to the computer user, but many are surreptitious.

NONRESIDENT VIRUSES

Nonresident viruses can be thought of as consisting of a finder module and a replication module. The finder module is responsible for finding new files to infect. For each new executable file the finder module encounters, it calls the replication module to infect that file

RESIDENT VIRUSES

Resident viruses contain a replication module that is similar to the one that is employed by nonresident viruses. This module, however, is not called by a finder module. The virus loads the replication module into memory when it is executed instead and ensures that this module is executed each time the operating system is called to perform a certain operation. The replication module can be called, for example, each time the operating system executes a file. In this case the virus infects every suitable program that is executed on the computer.

Resident viruses are sometimes subdivided into a category of fast infectors and a category of slow infectors. Fast infectors are designed to infect as many files as possible. A fast infector, for instance, can infect every potential host file that is accessed. This poses a special problem when using anti-virus software, since a virus scanner will access every potential host file on a computer when it performs a system-wide scan. If the virus scanner fails to notice that such a virus is present in memory the virus can "piggy-back" on the virus scanner and in this way infect all files that are scanned. Fast infectors rely on their fast infection rate to spread. The disadvantage of this method is that infecting many files may make detection more likely, because the virus may slow down a computer or perform many suspicious actions that can be noticed by anti-virus software. Slow infectors, on the other hand, are designed to infect hosts infrequently. Some slow infectors, for instance, only infect files when they are copied. Slow infectors are designed to avoid detection by limiting their actions: they are less likely to slow down a computer noticeably and will, at most, infrequently trigger anti-virus software that detects suspicious behavior by programs. The slow infector approach, however, does not seem very successful.

STAGES IN COMPUTER VIRAL ATTACK

1.      Dormancy stage

2.      Propagation stage

3.      Triggering stage

4.      Damaging stage

                                             PREVENTIONS

1.      Safe Sex approach

2.      Use of Anti –virus software.

3.      Application Licensed Software

4.      Computer worms.

WORMS

A computer worm is a self-replicating computer program. It uses a network to send copies of itself to other nodes (computers on the network) and it may do so without any user intervention. Unlike a virus, it does not need to attach itself to an existing program. Worms almost always cause at least some harm to the network, if only by consuming bandwidth, whereas viruses almost always corrupt or devour files on a targeted computer. Computer worms are program that are capable of duplicating themselves usually through the network or mailing list.

They usually slow down the whole time of the computer which consequently results in monetary loss. Worms with good intent

Beginning with the very first research into worms at Xerox PARC there have been attempts to create useful worms. The Nachi family of worms, for example, tried to download and install patches from Microsoft's website to fix vulnerabilities in the host system – by exploiting those same vulnerabilities. In practice, although this may have made these systems more secure, it generated considerable network traffic, rebooted the machine in the course of patching it, and did its work without the consent of the computer's owner or user.

Some worms, such as XSS worms, have been written for research to determine the factors of how worms spread, such as social activity and change in user behavior, while other worms are little more than a prank, such as one that sends the popular image macro of an owl with the phrase "O RLY?" to a print queue in the infected computer.

Most security experts regard all worms as malware, whatever their payload or their writers' intentions.

Protecting against dangerous computer worms

Worms spread by exploiting vulnerabilities in operating systems. All vendors supply regular security updates (see "Patch Tuesday"), and if these are installed to a machine then the majority of worms are unable to spread to it. If a vendor acknowledges a vulnerability, but has yet to release a security update to patch it, a zero day exploit is possible. However, these are relatively rare.

Users need to be wary of opening unexpected email, and should not run attached files or programs, or visit web sites that are linked to such emails. However, as with the ILOVEYOU worm, and with the increased growth and efficiency of phishing attacks, it remains possible to trick the end-user into running a malicious code.

Anti-virus and anti-spyware software are helpful, but must be kept up-to-date with new pattern files at least every few days. The use of a firewall is also recommended.

In the April-June, 2008, issue of IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, computer scientists describe a potential new way to combat internet worms. The researchers discovered how to contain the kind of worm that scans the Internet randomly, looking for vulnerable hosts to infect. They found that the key is for software to monitor the number of scans that machines on a network send out. When a machine starts sending out too many scans, it is a sign that it has been infected, allowing administrators to take it off line and check it for viruses.                                                                                                                                                                    

WAYS OF PREVENTING WORMS.

  • Hindering the  penetrations of system on the network
  • Lock or disallow mainly list
  • Making the penetration of each machine difficult

 

MICROSOFT WORD

 

 

INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT WORD HAND OUT

MICROSOFT WORD

DEFINITION & DESCRIPTION

Microsoft word is one of the application packages as software in computer system. It is also of the family/ group of application packages (known as Microsoft Office) as software in computer system. This family/group comprises; MS. Word, M.S Outlook, M.S. Access, M.S power point, M.S Publisher, M.S front page, M.S Outlook, etc.

Microsoft word is also one easiest (simple to understand & interesting ) package or program among others of its member. Microsoft word is the number one simple package or program that any teacher or instructor will first introduce to the student after the introduction to computer and the study of desktop environment).

USES OF MICROSOFT WORD

Microsoft word is basically used for typesetting of documents; it is the package that gives the simplicity to many students and the user’s when it comees to it uses. Also Microsoft word can be use for preparation of the following jobs ike; letters, C.V.,Project, proposal, Letter Headings, presentation documents and other graphics work/jobs depend on efficient and expert you are in the uses and operating of Microsoft word.

UNDERSTANDING MICROSOFT WORD ENVIRONMENT

Microsoft word environment comprises the list, the type & the kind of Bars, tools programs, commands, etc. that you will need to work with supported by your keyboard and mouse to carry out your desired job. In the environment of the Microsoft word, you will also find different icon and buttons which symbolize different commands and functions.

 

THE TYPE OF BARS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

There are certain things that will appear in the Microsoft word environment immediately you open it. They are permanent in the environment oand also you can activate or bring out the one you you will/may which to work with. These things are called (Bars) and in Microsoft word there are about twenty (20) different bars and they all have their effective commands and functions, they are very important and they are easy to use. The major important bars in Microsoft word are: (1) Title Bar (2) Menu Bar. (3) Standard Bar (4) Formatting Bar (4) Formatting Bar (5) Drawing Bar (6) Table and Borders Bar, etc.

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE BARS

1        TITLE BAR:- This is the first bar that appear at the top of Microsoft word environment and  it contain and carries the name of the package you are using, the name of the file you are working on and also contain the buttons you use to [(1) Minimize (11) Maximize (111) Council].This three button are beside each other and always at the right hand of the bar. Title bar always appears in blue or light blue colour, but in some computer the setting may be any colour.

 

2        MENU BAR:- This is the bar that carries the list of commands and functions, actions activities that you ill work with while using Microsoft word to do your jobs. The bar allows youto maximize your interest and desire so as to produce for you, the way you want it to be. In this menu bar, the list of buton and commands are: File, Edit, View, Insert, Format, Tools Table, Window & Help. This is the bar that carries majority of the action, command, activities and functions to be used while working on the page of Microsoft Word. In the above listed button and command, you can get anything you want to use or the command and functions you may which to call on to carry out your jobs while working on the page of Microsoft word. To use these butons and functions all you need to do is just click on one  you just want to use and then move to select option from the fly out.

 

3        STANDARD BAR:- This is an important bar that allows and support you to carry out your jobs. It contains the list of button and icons you can easily click on and the function will appear without going into menu bar to activate the command. The list of buttons and commands contains in the standard bar are: New page, Open (Existing Document), Save, E-Mail, Search print, print preview, spell & Grammar, Cut Copy, past Undo, Redo, Insert Table, Table & Border, Zoom(%) etc.

 

4       FORMATTING BAR:- This bar mainly used to format your jobs or work done on Microsoft word page. It allows and gives you the way of how you want your work to look like, to edit the data (text), the lines, the colour, the text style etc. the list of the button (icon) are: Bold B, Underline U Italic I , FONT STYLE Box, font (Text) Size Button, Alignment (Right, Centre, Left, Justify, & force Justify), Text Colour Button, Fill Colour And Numbering, etc. all these buttons and commands are/can be accessed by clicking on whichever one you want to use or apply.

 

5       DRAWING BAR:- This bar help you to work with drawing and format your image while working on Microsoft word. This bar contains the list of buttons with command to be used whenever you are to work with image, picture or any drawing objects. The list of the buttons involves are: Clip Art Icon, Text Box, word Arc Icon, Auto Shapes Button, Line, Arrow Style, Rectangle, Oval (Circle), Cotton, Lifestyle Button, etc.

 

6       TABLE AND BORDERS BAR: This bar is also important for the users to be able to design their jobs and it allows you to create table, edit it work on it and maximize your interest. It also allows you to insert or put buttons to your work (i.e if yo want to put border) and gives you different kind & types of border line you can apply to your jobs or work. It also allows  you to change the direction of your text (i.e. horizontal or vertical). The buttons and tools to be use in the bar are:  Draw(Table Pencil), Eraser, Border Style, Border Width, Border Colour, Out Side Border, Fill Colour, Table Button, Align (Top, Centre, Button)Spill Cell, Change Text Direction, Set Left To Right Arrow, etc. Not that these listed button and tolls can only be apply when you are working with table & border in your Microsoft word page

THE LIST

 

WORKING WITH MICROSOFT WORD

DISCOVER THE STEP-BY-STEP PRACTICAL OF (HOW TO…)

TO CREATE PAGE SETUP OR CREATE NEW DOCUMENT ON MICROSOFT WORD

STEPS

>On the menu bar

>Click on file by (left button)

>Click on page setup (from the fly out )

>One dialogue box will appear

.>Then, under the paper size box

 >Click on it and choose a paper size

 

 >Click on margin to select your orientation

 

 >Click on portrait or landscape

 >Then on margin select option                                             OR

 >  Then click on okay (OK) and start working.

 

TO SAVE CURRENT DOCUMENTS

Steps:-

Ø     On the menu bar, click on file

Ø     From the fly-out

Ø     Click on save, then type the name for the file.

Ø     Then click on OK.

 

TO PRINT DOCUMENT

STEPS:-

Ø     On the menu bar

Ø     Click on file

Ø     From the fly-out, click on print

Ø     Then from the dialogue box that appears

Ø     Select/choose option if you want to print more than one page

Ø     Then click on OK to send to printer.

Ø     Note: make sure the printer is on before you click (OK)

 

TO COPY, CUT & PASTE A TEXT OR IMAGE

STEPS:-

Ø     First highlight the text or image

Ø     Right click on it

Ø     Then click on copy (or) cut by (left buton)

Ø     Then click on anywhere you want to paste it by (right button)

Ø     Then click on paste and continue working.

To Apply Numbering and Bullet for  Text

 

STEPS:-

Ø     First highlight the text or put cursor at the beginning of the text.

Ø     On the menu bar, click on format (left button)

Ø     Then click on bullet and numbering (left button)

Ø     Choose a style either bullet or number from the box (left button)

Ø     Click okay (OK) (left button)

 

APPLYING BORDER TO PARAGRAPH AND PAGE

TYPE OF BORDER

1        Paragraph Border:- This has to do with applying page border to paragraph.

2        Page Border:- It has to do with applying border to the whole page

Paragraph Border

STEPS:-

Ø     First highlight the text

Ø     On the menu bar, click on format

Ø     Click on border  and shading.

Ø     Then Click on border (from the dialogue box that appears)

Ø     Under the setting choose an option

Ø     Change the colour under the colour box (if needed)

Ø     Change the size and style of the border (if needed)

Ø     In the “apply to” box choose either is the paragraph ortext

Ø     Then click on Okay (OK) or enter on your keyboard.

PAGE BORDER

STEPS:-

Ø     On the menu bar

Ø     Click on format

Ø     Then click on border

Ø     Click on page border

Ø     Click on the box with art and choose option

Ø     Then click on OK

TO APPLY NUMBER OR INSERT NUMBER INTO PAGE

This is where you put number on your page either at the button or on the top.

STEPS

Ø     Position the cursor on the first page of the document

Ø     On the menu bar, click on insert

Ø     Then click on page numbers

Ø     On the option box that appears

Ø     Select your format option e.g 1,2,3,or a,b,c,or I,ii,iii,etc.

Ø     Then click on ok button on the box

 

TO INSERT TABLE INTO PAGE

STEPS

Ø     On the menu bar, click on insert,

Ø     Then click on insert table

Ø     In the number of column /roll box

Ø     Type a number of your choice for both roll&column

Ø     Then click on ok button.

 

 

TO CREATE OR APPLY COLUMN ON PAGE OR TO BREAK PAGE TO COLUMN

STEPS

Ø     On the menu bar click on format

Ø     Then choose your number of column, the space, the width

Ø     And then line between (if needed)

Ø     Then click on OK

 

TO INSERT HEADER & FOOTER TO PAGE

STEPS

Ø     On the menu bar

Ø     Click on view button

Ø     From the fly-out

Ø     Then move and click on header and footer

Ø     Then the page will change

Ø     The top and the button will only appear to type

Ø     Type the text or the data you want to use for header and footer

Ø     After inputting the data

Ø     Double click outside (i.e. on the page)

Ø     Then your normal page will return

 

TO APPLY SUBSCRIPT AND SUPERSCRIPT TO A TEXT6 OR NUMBER

STEPS

Ø     First highlight the text or number

Ø      On the menu bar, Click on format button

Ø     Then click on font

Ø     From the dialogue box that appear

Ø     Click again on font

Ø     Then move on to click on superscript or subscript below

Ø     Then click on OK

 

TO APPLY LINE SPACING TO GROUP OF TEXT

                     STEPS

                           First highlight the texts

Ø     Then on the menu bar

Ø     Click on format, then from the fly-out

Ø     Click on paragraph

Ø     Then from the dialogue box that appears

Ø     Select the spacing number you want

Ø     i.e single spacing,11/2  spacing or double spacing etc.

Ø     Then click on OK

 

TO SAVE DOCUMENT INTRO A STORAGE DEVICE

STEPS:-

Ø     After or before finishing your work

Ø     On the menu bar, click on file

Ø     From the fly-out, click on “Save As”

Ø     (OR) press F12 on your keyboard

Ø     Then one dialogue will appear

Ø     Then select the type of storage device you want to use at the above (i.e Save in)

Ø     Then move to file name below

Ø     Type the name you want to use for the file

Ø     Then click on Save

 

TO SHOW OR HIDE RULER GUIDE

STEPS:-

Ø     On the menu bar

Ø     Click on view

Ø     Then from, the fly-out

Ø     Click on ruler to show or hide the ruler.

 

TO INSERT CLIP ART

STEPS:-

Ø     In the menu bar, click on insert

Ø     Then from the fly-out

Ø     Move to picture and click on Clip Art

Ø     Then from the bar that appears at the right side

Ø     Click on “GO” then  the images will come out.

Ø     Then place you’re your cursor where you want to insert the Clip Art

Ø     Click on any of te image

Ø     Then the Clip Art will insert to where you place your cursor

Ø     Then start working onit.

 

TO CREATE DROP CAP TO A TEXT

STEPS:-

Ø     First highlight the text

Ø     On the menu bar, click on format

Ø     From the fly-out, move and click on Drop Cap

Ø     One dialogue box will appear

Ø     Then select the type  of Drop Cap you want

Ø     Then select the font type, the line size, and the distance you want

Ø     Then click on OK

TO APPLY PAGE BREAK

STEPS:-

Ø     First place your cursor on where you want to break the page

Ø     On the menu bar, click on insert

Ø     Then move to click on Break

Ø     Then one dialogue box will appear

Ø     On the dialogue box, select the type of break you want

Ø     Select/click the section of break type you want

Ø     Then click on OK

SHORTCUTKEYS AND COMMANDS ON MICROSOFT WORD

Note:- Always highlight or select the text before using or applying the shortcuts commands

Ctrl         +       A       =       To highlight all text at once

Ctrl         +       B       =       To Bold text

Ctrl         +       C       =       To copy Text

Ctrl         +       D       =       To show font formatting Dialogue box

Ctrl         +       E       =       To Align text to Centre

Ctrl         +       F       =       To find text

Ctrl         +       G       =       T o bring out Find & Replace Box

Ctrl         +       H       =       To replace text

Ctrl         +       I        =       To Italic text

Ctrl         +       J        =       To Align text to Justify

Ctrl         +       L       =       To Align text to Left

Ctrl         +       N       =       To open New Page

Ctrl         +       O       =       To open document (open existing word document)

Ctrl         +       P       =       To Print Document

Ctrl         +       R       =       To Align text to Right

Ctrl         +       S       =       To Save document

Ctrl         +       T       =       To Format text

Ctrl         +       U       =       To  Underline text

Ctrl         +       V       =       To paste Text or Image

Ctrl         +       W      =       To Exit or close Microsoft word

Ctrl         +       Y       =       To Repeat Last Action

Ctrl         +       Z       =       To undo (to bring previous action)

Ctrl         +       1        =       To Apply Single Spacing

Ctrl         +       5        =       To Apply  1/2 Spacing

Ctrl         +       2        =       To Apply Double Spacing

Ctrl         +        F12     =        To ‘Save As’’ (i.e. .to save into a storage action)

Ctrl         +       ]        =       To increase font or Text size

Ctrl         +       [        =       To Reduce font or Text size

Ctrl         +       Home (key)  =       To see the beginning of page

Ctrl         +       End (key)     =       To see the end of page

Ctrl         +       (+) key        =       To Create Subscript

Ctrl +Shift +     (+)key         =       To create Superscript

Ctrl + Shift +    .>                =       To increase text size

Ctrl + Shift +      <               =       To Reduce text size

Ctrl + Shift+       D               =       To Double Underline

Page Up (key)                      =       To move page/ cursor Up

Page Down(key)         =       To move page/cursor Down

               

 

MICROSOFT POWERPOINT

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

1.     INTRODUCTION

2.     WISDOM MESSAGE ( Reason for labour)

3.     Microsoft Power Point (Unleashing)

 

·        The Definition

·        The Use of Microsoft power point

·        The Type of Bars and their functions

·        The tools and their functions

·        Exploration of task pane bar and its functions

 

4.     the Microsoft power point short cut keys and commands

 

INTRODUCTION

 

IT’S TIME TO UNLEASH YOUR GUTS

Complement of the seasons to you all ell wishers and success lover’s out there. Here comes again another secrete that will make you unleash the hidden treasure right within you. This handbook ‘The secrete in Microsoft Power point’ has come to you as a great opportunity for you to maximize your talents and make them work for you anywhere, anytime, anyhow and on anything. Most especially for all computer studying student who want to be good at it (Microsoft power point).

Like never before, this practical handbook has come to your way and it is your chance and choice to grab it, study it, practice it and also do those presentation and designs by yourself. If you buy this practical handbook, you will experience the power of step-by-step guidelines and the simplicity of its explanatory way. Also I assure you that when you buy this book you will never regret of studying computer and the application software like this one (Microsoft power point).

Beloved, it will be of a great advice and much advisable for you to buy this practical book and use it by following the step-by-step description inside whenever you are with or have free access to computer system. The handbook is specially prepared in a step-by-step practical explanatory to give you the way of doing presentation and the way they are doing it, most especially in the media houses. ‘if you know you have guts within you and you don’t border to maximize it, then you are the problem of yourself’ so, therefore, this is yet another opportunity for you to set loose of those guts and potentials inside you.

Thanks

MICROSOFT POWER POINT

 

Definition & description of Microsoft power point (M.S.P.P)

Microsoft power point is an application package from the member of Microsoft office software, is one of the family of Microsoft office application package that perform with an exiting features. Microsoft power point is one of the most interesting, easy to operate, have a good presentation and give a wonderful output among others of its members.

Microsoft power point happens to be the best application package using by the media house for presentation. Television station, newspaper, magazine, workshop presenters, seminars data & graphics presentation. This is an exited package that also worked like a graphic design package. Microsoft power point comprises many functions, command and these functions and command has made it one of the most interesting one among others application packages.

There are many bars and function and command in Microsoft power point and they arer very easy to use and to work on . most especially for presentation.

 

USES OF  MICROSOFT POWER POINT:

Microsoft power point is mainly and or basically used for a presentation in the media house and also for the presentation of other things like: (i) T.V presentation, (ii) proposals (iii) company profile (iv) reports (v) Design of gift card (vi) invitation card (vii) wedding card (viii) book back covers (ix) project presentation (x) slide show picture presentation.

 

It has a wide range of uses by the expert i.e those that are good in using it. (Efficiently).

Microsoft power point automatically appears in landscape type of orientation, but it is you that will now change it to the type of orientation in which you want or like to use . i.e Landscape                                            or portrait

 

 

PLEASE READ ME

Understanding Microsoft power point environment

In this environment of Microsoft power point, there are many bars and other things to work with. When you open Microsoft power point page, you see different buttons and bars also you will see different bars (tools) and their functions.

 

Type of bars and their functions (Explanation)

 Bar are like tools which you will use to work with on the Microsoft power point page. They are very important to the extent that you cannot afford to ignore them because you cannot do anything without them. These bars, tools and button give you the direction, the way and the magic steps of how to create things like presentation on Microsoft power point page. Some of these bars will automatically appears wherever you open Microsoft power point, after that you will now then bring out the bars you will like to use in the environment. How? ‘ you will have to right click on the environment ( upside) then one fly out will come out, then move your mouse to the type of bars  you outside and then click n( or mark) on it’. When you perform thus step, the bar will appear on the environment for its uses.

Microsoft power point and Microsoft word have the same function, in Microsoft word when you open it, you will just start typing straight. But in Microsoft power point is not like that; to start typing in Microsoft power point you will have to work with text box. This text box buttons is specially design for Microsoft power point to work with it. The text box is among the tools that appear on drawing bar. But at the same time, when you open a page of Microsoft power point, two of the text box will automatically appear on the page and it will be written ( click to add title) & ( click to add subtitle) on it. i.e inside that box is only where you can and are going to type your data or text. You can also use the text box for picture and then work on it.

TYPE OF BARS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS.

The type of bars and buttons on Microsoft power point page are: Title bar, menu bar, standard bar, formatting bar, control tool bar, drawing bar, outlining bar, picture bar, reviewing bar, revision pane bar, document recovery bar & word art bar. These are the bars and tools to work with on Microsoft power point page. Now let us explore them one after the other band their functions.

 

TITLE BAR:- This is the bar that appear as the first bar on top of the environment. It is the bar that carry  the name of the programme ( package) or file name you are working with.

The bar always appears in blue and light blue colour in most  computers.

MENU BAR:- menu bar comprises the buttons and functions that can be mostly use while working on Microsoft power point. The list of the buttons and command are: File, Edit, View, Insert, Format, Tool, slide show, window, help. Menu bar is the bar that caries most of the activities, action, action, function and button to be use while working on the page of Microsoft power point . in these buttons you can get anything you want to use or the command you want to call on while working on the page of Microsoft power point. To get access to the content functions, of  these listed button, all you need doing is to just click on them and the list of its functions will fly out and them you will move to  click on the one you want to use.

STANDARD BAR:- This bar caries the list of standard command and button to be used while working on Microsoft power point. It allows you to have the short cut move and access to those important buttons to work with. The bar include the important buttons like; new page, open  ( Existing document), save, E-mail, search, print, print preview, spell & grammar, cut, copy, past, format painter, undo & redo, insert chart, insert table & borders, zoom, close,etc.

FORMATTING  BAR:- This bar contains the list of buttons that you can use to format your work done on the page of Microsoft power point. The buttons are : Bold B, underline U,  font (Text) size Button, Alignment (Justify), Right, Centre, Left Justify, force Justify), Text colour Button, Fill Colour of Numbering, etc. all these button are accepted by their icon representing them on the page of Microsoft power point.

CONTROL TOOL BAR:- This is one of the bat that support other bars to work together and deliver a good task by the user, the bal allow you to maximize your work. Within the page in which you are working with. But some of the button & command in the control tool box are not commonly use like other button & commands.

 DRAWING BAR:-  This bar contain the button you need to use when yoy are working with drawing, object, pictures ,or any other things like graphics. This buttons includes: Text Box, Clip Art Icon, Word Art Button, Auto Shapes, Line, Arrow, Rectangle, Oval ( Circle), Vertical Text Box, insert Diagram & Chart, Fill colour Button, Line colour Button, font Colour Button, Line style Button, rash style button, Arrow style Button, shadow style button, 3-D style Button etc. Theses listed buttons appears on the page environment to represent their function and button can be/ apply by clicking on them (i.e click on the icons).

OUTLINING  BAR:- Outlining bar  is also one of the associated bar that is not commonly use on the page of Microsoft power point, except there is especial work or job that will request for the uses of the outline bar. The buttons include in the bar are: Promote, Demote, Move up, move down, collapse, Expand, collapse all, expand all, summary slide & show formatting. So these listed button are not common in use, but only when it is necessary to be used then you will call & click on them.

PICTURE BAR:- This bar contain the list of tools and button that allow you to work with picture and assign the picture the way you like. In this bar you can do many things with your picture. They (tools) are: pick Tool, Shaping Tools, Colour Tool, Cropping Tools, Resizing Tool, More contrast, less contract, more & less Brightness, rotate Tool, Line Style, Compress  picture Tool, Re-colour picture tool,  format object tool, set transparent colour, & Reset picture. These buttons & tools appear by their icon and can be access by clicking them when you want to use them.

REVIEWING BAR:- This bar is one of the bar that perform a  special task, most especially when you are trying to create a background on/ for your page it will allow you to format the background the way you want it to be. The tools & button include in the bar are: mark-up, Reviewers, previous Items, Next Item, Apply, Unapplied, Insert comment, Edit comment, delete comment, etc.

REVISION PANE BAR:- This bar and its content appear like a long box (down) by the right side of the page of your Microsoft power point. The bar contain two main function   i.e Gallery button and list button. These two buttons also contain  in them, their functions and they are: On Gallery ( the preview of a slide presentation and the change. On list ( the preview of slide change and presentation change).

TABLE AND BORDERS BAR:- This is one of the important bar that you can use in support to format your work. It allows you to supply border on your page or your work. It allows you to work or create table on your page. It gives you the chance to maximize yourself within its uses capacity. the tools include: Draw (Table pencil), Eraser, border style, border width, border colour, out side Border, Fill colour, table Button, align Top, Align centre, align button, spill cell, change ext Direction, set left to right Arrow, set Right to left arrow etc. all these listed buttons and tools can only be apply when you are working with table and border in your Microsoft power point page (not that).

TASK PANE BAR:- This is the most exited bar among others. It has to do with the preparation of presentation and it contains many button, functions, a and styles of presentations. Some of these button and functions are: New presentation, clipboards, insert clip art, slide show, slide layout, slide design slide design template, slide design colour scheme, slide macro, security, visual basic editor,. Control toolbar & Microsoft script editor. There would be no need to go and click on any of the buttons or bring it out when it is not needed to be used.

WEB BAR:- This type of bar give you help and support whenever you are working with or on internet and you want to make use of Microsoft power point in carrying out your task. The bar contains the list of buttons to be use. They are: Back & Forward, stop, refresh, start page, search the web, favorite, Go, etc. you will only need to use the bar when you are on net.

WORD ART BAR:- This bar perform a magic task just like you are working with drawing packages. The bar can only be use when you are working with text & data.  It gives you the ability to express your interest right within the page without you going into another package to import drawing like text shape and direction  design. The tools & buttons in the bar include: Insert word Art, edit Text, word Art Gallery, format Object, Word Art Shape, word Art Vertical Text, word Art Alignment & word Art Character Spacing.

NOW STEP BY STEP UNLEASHING

The power and secrete of (How to……..)

To Open Microsoft power point page

Steps:-

·        On the (your) desktop environment, click on start button.

·        Then move  & click on program

·        From the fly out, move to Microsoft power point

·        Then click on it. i.e (left click button on your mouse)

·        Then the page of Microsoft power point will open

 

To create setup or document on Microsoft power point

Steps:-

·        On the menu bar, click on file

·        From the fly out, click on page setup

·        Then the page setup dialogue will appear

·        Click  on paper size

·        Under the paper size click on it & choose a paper size

·        on the orientation side

·        Choose an orientation  i.e portrait                 or landscape

·        On the margin side, then choose option.

·        Then click on ok below, then start working with your new page.

 

To save the or a document

Steps:-

·        On the menu  bar, click on file

·        From the fly-out click on save

·        From the appeared dialogue box

·        Type the file name you want to use (i.e file name)

·        After that the click on save button below

·        Or press enter key on your keyboard.

 

To insert more page

Steps:-

·        On the menu bar

·        Click on insert

·        The move to new slide from the fly-out

·        Then click on it (new slide)

·        Or press ctrl. + m on your keyboard

 

To Duplicate slide

Steps:

·        On the menu bar

·        Click on insert

·        He move to duplicate slide

·        Then click on duplicate slide

 

 

To insert page number

Steps:

·        On the menu bar

·        Click on insert

·        Then move to slide numbering

·        Click on the slide numbering

·        One dialogue box will appear

·        Then follow the action and make choice

·        Perform the same action to get header & footer

 

To insert Date & Time

Steps:-

·        On the menu bar

·        Click on insert

·        The click on date and time

·        The one dialogue box will appears

·        Then follow the action and select option

·        After selecting your option then click on ok or press enter

 

To start typing data on the M.S. Power point page

Steps:

·        When you  open new page

·        Two text box will automatically appear on the page

·        Use your mouse to click on/ inside one of them ( text box)

·         then you can  start typing or imputing data

·        After using the two ( text box) and you need/ want to get another one

·        Then move to the drawing bar below

·        Click on text box, then your mouse will change

·        Then drag the  mouse across to where you want to type or  put data

 

To apply numbering and bullet for a text or group of text

Steps:-

·        On the menu bar, click on format

·        From the fly-out that come out, click on bullet and numbering

·        Then  one dialogue box will appear

·        The from the dialogue box

·        Select the type of bullet you want

·        After that click on ok

·        For numbering, you move to numbering bullet beside bullet

·        Then click on it and select the type of numbering you want

Note: make sure you are on text box before you can access the action and or you make sure you highlight the text  or multiple texts before you take action on it

 

To copy & cut a text group of texts or picturte & images

There  are two ways of copy, cut and paste a text of image

 

(1). By taking through menu bar

Steps:-

·        Highlight or select the text (first)

·        Then on the menu bar, click on edit

·        Then move to copy and click on it

·        Then the text will copy the 1 & 2 action

·        The move to cut and click on it

·        Then if you want to paste, on the menu click on edit and then click on paste anywhere you want it

 

(2) By using your mouse

Steps:

·        Highlight or select the text or image (first)

·        Then with your mouse, right click on it

·        The from the fly-out, click on copy or cut

·        Then if you want to paste, apply the same action and click on paste anywhere you want it.

 

To format text (i.e Bold, Italic, Underline & Alignment)

Steps:-

o       After typing the text, then highlight it

o       The on the formatting bar, click on bold b if you want

o       Click on italic i if you want

o       Click on underline u if you want

 

To apply alignment:

·        Click on any of the four alignments ( i.e lift align, centre align, right align & justify align) depending on your choice.

·        When you perform this action, then the one you want will apply.

 

To insert table on/ into your page

Table can be apply either you are working on text or not

Steps:-

·        On the menu bar, click on insert.

·        Then from the fly-out, click on insert

·        Then a small dialogue box will appear

·        Then transact and input the number of column and row you want

·        Then click on ok or press enter on your keyboard

 

 

To change (fort type) of text

Steps:-

·        After typing the text, highlight it

·        Then move to formatting bar

·        Then click on the arrow beside the font box

·        Then from the (long down) fly-out

·        Click on any style you want

 

To increase or reduce front or text size

Steps:-

§        After typing the text, highlight it

§        Then on the formatting bar

§        Click on font size (i.e. by clicking on the small arrow beside it)

§        Then from the fly-out, select the number of size you want

 

To apply order to text or object, picture & image

Steps:

§        After typing the text or putting the object on the page

§        Duplicate it or put another text or object on top of the original one

§        Then click on one of them

§        Then if you want to apply order (i.e send to back, bring to front, bring forward or send backward)

§        On the drawing bar below, click on draw

§        Then from the fly-out, move to order, then click on it

§        Then from another fly-out that appear

§        Click on the one you want top apply (either; send to back, bring to front, bring forward or send backward).

 

To Insert Picture Or Images

Steps:-

§        On the menu bar, click on insert button

§        Then from the fly-out move to picture

§        Then from another fly-out, select & click where the picture from.

 

OR To get a picture from the environment

Steps:

§        On the task pane bar on your right hand

§        Click on the arrow beside (new presentation)

§        Then from the fly-out, click on insert clip art

§        Then  a section will appear

§        Then click on search and wait for the list of picture to come out

§        Then close the ones you like from it by weather by clicking on it or right click on it or click insert or by drawing it to the page

§        Then the picture or image will appear on your page

 

 To create or setup slide show presentation

Steps:

§        After creating or designing your presentation

§        On the task pane bar, click on the arrow beside it

§        From the fly-out, move to slide transition

§        Then a section of activities will appear

§        Then you will have to follow the action step by step

i.e. by selecting and choosing your choice

§        After  doing choosing and selecting all these things

§        Then click on play below the box to preview the slide you have created

§        Then  to view the slide show

§        Click on the slide show below (play button)

§        If you want the setting to apply to all of your page

§        Then click (apply to all slides) below

 

To put  sound or assign sound to slide show setting

Steps:-

§        On the slide transition button (section)

§        Move to the sound and then click on the arrow beside the box

§        Then select the type of sound you want to use

§        On the same section, to put the type  of transaction

§        Then choose your choice on the first list appear at the top of the section

NOTE: You must connect to a computer speaker before you can hear the sound you have chosen

 

To apply fill colour/ out line colour to object /image

Steps:

§        On the page of your Microsoft power point

§        Draw an object or image like rectangle or oval (circle)

§        On the drawing bar below. Click on auto shape and then select image

§        Then drag it cross the page. Select  it with your pick tool

§        The object or image will be surrounded by small dot (i.e. Nodules)

§        Then on the same drawing bar, click on the arrow beside fill colour or outline colour to select the colour you want, depending on the one you want to do (either fill colour or outline colour)\then the action will apply to the object or image on your page.

 

To apply colour to a text or group of text

Steps:-

§        After typing the text or group of text

§        Highlight the text

§        Then on the formatting bar

§        Click on font colour (click the arrow beside the symbol A)

§        Then select and click on the type of colour you want

 

To apply shadow to a text or grop of text

Steps:

§        After typing the text

§        Highlight the text

§        Then on the formatting bar

§        Click on shadow i.e the symbol S

§        Then  the shadow command will apply to your text

NOTE: The shadow colour of the text you apply cannot be change from the arch colour, it is a permanent default colour for text shadow

 

To apply change case to a text or group of text

§        Change case simply means to change the face/ look of the text from capital letter to small letter or to little case or to small letter.

§        Steps:-

§        After typing the text

§        Highlight the text, then on the menu bars

§        Click on format, then from the fly-out

§        Click on change case the from the dialogue box that appear

§        Select the type of change case you want

§        Then click on ok

 

EXPLORATION OF TASK PANE BAR

Task pane bar comprises of magic buttons and functions. There are also the designs templates you can use without you even have to design anyone; these template also serve as back ground .if you want to use it as background. They are the best use button while creating and or designing presentation. The task pane bar includes:

1.       New presentation             6.       Slide design- design template

2.       Clipboard                       7.       Slide design- colour schemes

3.       Search                            8.       Slide design- animation schemes

4.       Insert clip art                   9.       Custom animation

5.       Slide layout                     10.     Slide Transition

 

These above listed buttons, function & actions are the list of what make up task pane bar and they can be accessed by clicking on small arrow beside on the top of the bar and then select the one you want to work with

       The Description Of Function Button On The Task Pane Bar

 

1       NEW PRESENTATION

This button on gives you the list of function and action to take while and when setting up a new presentation. It gives you chance to choose your setup, how you want it to be, the way you want the presentation to appears and also fit it to your convenience

 

2       CLIPBOARD

This button deals with the importation of another work done from another packages that is related to the present used one.

 

3       SEARCH

This button allow you to locate the (any) hidden object or image or picture, function or data that you may need to use while working on M.S power point page. It also allow you to search for any images from any where in the computer  even in 7your document

 

4.        INSERT CLIP ART:-

This button ( after clicking on it) gives you the list & categories of images, clip art and pictures that you can use for your design. It also gives you the convenience to choose the type of images or pictures you want and then work on them on your page.

 

5.       SLIDE LAYOUT:-

This action gives you the list of page default and the default that you can use in designing your work . it gives you how and the type of arrangement of the page which you would like to use.

 

6.      SLIDE DESIGN- DESIGN TEMPLATE:-

This button gives you the function of a list of samples of presentation as a background template that has be created there as a default for you. Ewhen you click on any one of them it will automatically apply to the page and the you can now edit it to your taste and format it the way you like or want it to be.

 

7.      SLIDE DESIGN – COLOUR SCHEMES:-

This button does the same things with the above (no.6_. but its own special task is that it change the colour  of the background while the design will remain.\

8.     slide design- Animation Schemes:-

this button gives you the opportunity to select the type of animation  you would like to apply to your presentation. There are different types of animation you can choose just be clicking on any one of them and then mopve down to compete the setting. It also allows you to preview it slide show after when you  have selecting your choice.

 

 

9.     CUSTOM ANIMATION

This button gives you the preview of a chosen animation and your final design presentation. It also includes many options inside which you can use in setting up your work and apply it

 

10.                        SLIDE TRANSITION:-

This button and it functions the most exited and interested one that combine all of other button, preview their activities and also deliver the final task on the task pane bar. It includes the list of animation types, the sound  types, the speed setting, the slide setting and many more. This button also gives you the chance to create  presentation to suite your own taste and convenience by following the option  and the function one after the other. This section is the ion that gives you the final solution of any presentation you may which to create, that is after assigning it on your  Microsoft power point page.

 

 

 

THE SCHORTCUT KEYS AND COMMANDS IN  MICROSOFT POWER POINT 

Most of the shortcut keys and commands in Microsoft word are performing the name action and functions. But there are some of its own (Microsoft power point) that perform different or another action or functions.

 

NOTE: always highlight or select the text or image whenever you want  to apply any of these shortcut  keys and commands to a text, or group of text or any image.

 

ACTION ON KEYBOARD

FUNCTIONS

Ctrl + N

 To open new document

Ctrl +  O

 To open an existing document

Ctrl + S

 To save a document freshly

Ctrl +P

 To print a document or job

Ctrl + A

 To select all or highlight all on page together

Ctrl + F

 To find a word or text on the page

Ctrl + H

 To replace word or text on the page

Ctrl + C

 To copy text, image or picture

Ctrl + X

 To cut text, image, or picture

Ctrl + V

 To paste text, image or picture

Ctrl + D

 To duplicate

Ctrl + M

To insert more page

Ctrl + L

To align left

Ctrl + E

 To align centre

Ctrl + R

 To align right

 Ctrl + Y

 To repeat new blank presentation

Ctrl + F3

 To change case of text

Ctrl + Shift + >

 To increase text size`

Ctrl + Shift + <

To reduce text size`

F5

 To view slide show

F6

 To view next pane

 F7

 To check spell & grammar

 

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FASTECH TRAINING MATERIALS

HOW TO USE ADOBE PAGEMAKER 7.0

Adobe PageMaker, the industry standard desktop publishing software for business and education, is taught and supported by University Information Services.

With Adobe PageMaker, you can create professional-looking fliers, newsletters, brochures, booklets, PDF files, and more, even if you do not have any formal design or page layout training.

Getting and Installing PageMaker

PageMaker is available for institutional purchase from HoyaComputing. Visit HoyaComputing's Getting Software page and log in to the UIS Software Database for purchasing information.

Before you start using PageMaker, install a PostScript printer driver on your computer. PostScript allows you to print high-quality, professional-style documents on laser printers. If you don't install a PostScript printer driver, you will not be able to print your PageMaker document exactly as you created it.

The PageMaker Interface

Basic Page Layout

Revising Your Page Layout

Working With Text

Working With Graphics

Advanced Document Design

HOW TO USE ADOBE PAGEMAKER 7.0: The Tools Palette

In PageMaker, you must select a tool in order to perform an action.

 

  • Pointer (Arrow) tool – used to select, move, and resize objects
  • Text tool – used to type, edit, and format text
  • Rotating tool – rotates the selected object around a fixed point
  • Cropping tool – trims graphics that have been imported into PageMaker
  • Diagonal Line tool – draws lines at an angle
  • Constrained Line tool – draws perfectly straight vertical and horizontal lines
  • Rectangle tool – draws square and rectangular shapes
  • Rectangle Frame tool – draws square and rectangular placeholders for text and graphics
  • Ellipse tool – draws oval and circular shapes
  • Ellipse Frame tool – draws oval and circular placeholders for text and graphics
  • Polygon tool – draws shapes with 5 or more sides
  • Polygon Frame tool – draws placeholders with 5 or more sides for text and graphics
  • Hand/Grabbing tool – repositions the view of the page on your screen. Double-clicking the Hand/Grabbing tool will return your page to the Fit In Window view.
  • Zoom tool – magnifies or reduces the view of the page on your screen

the Tools Palette

 

 

  1. To remove the Tools Palette, click Window then click Hide Tools.

Hiding the tools palette.

 

  1. To bring back the Tools Palette, click Window then click Show Tools.

showing the Tools Palette

 

HOW TO USE ADOBE PAGEMAKER 7.0: Creating and Deleting Guide Lines

PageMaker documents have blue guide lines near the left and right sides of the page to represent the document's inside and outside margins. You will also see pink guide lines near the top and bottom of your document that represent your top and bottom margins. If you need additional guide lines to help you lay out your document, you can create them easily (and easily delete them when you don't need them anymore). Guides will not print when you print your document, and text and graphics outside of guide lines will print.

 

Creating Guides

  1. Click the Pointer button on the Tools palette.

Click the Pointer button.

 

  1. Put your pointer over one of the rulers.

 

 

  1. To create a vertical guide, position your pointer anywhere in the left ruler

Creating a vertical guide.

 

  1. To create a horizontal guide, position your pointer anywhere in the top ruler.

Creating a horizontal guide.

 

  1. Click. Your pointer will turn into a double-sided arrow.

Click on a ruler to get the double-sided arrow pointer.

 

  1. Hold down your mouse button and drag your pointer down into the page. A turquoise line will appear.

Drag from the ruler to the page to create a guide.

 

  1. When you have positioned your guide where you want it, release your mouse button.
  2. Guides can be re-positioned at any time using the arrow pointer

 

 

Deleting Guides

 

  1. Click the Pointer button on the Tools palette.

Click the Pointer button.

 

 

  1. Click the guide and hold down your mouse button. Your pointer will turn into a double-sided arrow.

Click on the guide.

 

  1. Drag the guide off the page.

Drag the guide off the page to delete it.

 

HOW TO USE ADOBE PAGEMAKER 7.0: The Pasteboard

The Pasteboard is the area surrounding the page on the PageMaker screen. If you are refining your layout, you can move pictures, objects, and blocks of text onto the Pasteboard until you decide where to place them in your document.

There is only one Pasteboard (not a separate Pasteboard for each page). Your view of the Pasteboard will not change when you change pages.

 

  1. To view the pasteboard, click View on the main menu then click Entire Pasteboard.

Click View then Entire Pasteboard.

 

 

  1. The pasteboard doesn't change, even if you change pages

 

 

  1. To go back to the page view, click the View menu then click Fit In Window.

 

HOW TO USE PAGEMAKER 7.0: Using Page Indicators

  1. Page indicators, located on the bottom left of the PageMaker window, look like dog-eared pages of a book.
  2. The numbered page indicators represent the pages of your document. Click a numbered page indicator to quickly jump to that page.
  3. The page indicators marked L and R represent the Master Pages of your document. Click the L or R indicator to go to your Master Pages.

page indicators

 

HOW TO USE ADOBE PAGEMAKER 7.0: Setting Up a New Document

  1. On the main menu, click File, then click New.

Click File, then New.

 

 

  1. The Document Setup window will open.

the Document Setup window

 

PAGE SIZE AND DIMENSIONS

 

  1. Click the arrow next to the Page Size box.

Choose your paper size.

 

  1. A drop-down menu of page sizes will appear.

Scroll through the drop-down menu, then click the page size of your choice.

Choose your page size.

 

  1. The height and width of the page size will automatically appear in the boxes next to "Dimensions".

Your page size appears in Dimensions.

 

  1. If the page size you want is not in the Page Size drop-down list:

1.      Click the arrow next to the Page Size box.

2.      A drop-down menu of page sizes will appear. Scroll through the drop-down menu, then click Custom.

Creating a custom paper size.

 

  1. Type the dimensions of your Custom page size in the space provided.

Type the page width in the first space.

Type the page height in the second space.

Creating a custom paper size.

 

ORIENTATION

  1. To make your page taller than it is wide, click on Tall. (In Word and WordPerfect, this is called portrait orientation.)

To make your page wider than it is tall, click on Wide. (In Word and WordPerfect, this is called landscape orientation.)

tall and wide paper orientations

Choosing paper orientation.

 

OPTIONS

A.                 If you want your pages to:

    1. Print on both sides of the page--click Double-sided.
    2. Be folded or bound on the left--click Facing pages.

B.     To automatically re-position text and graphics if you modify page size, margins, or Master Pagesclick Adjust Layout

The Adjust Layout option will be unavailable until you create your document. After your document is created, you can reopen the Document Setup window and click Adjust layout.

C.                 To restart page numbering in each separate file in a book publication (instead of numbering every page in the book publication sequentially)--click Restart page numbering.

Document setup options.

 

NUMBER OF PAGES

  1. Click on the box next to Number of Pages, then type the number of pages you want your document to be.

When creating a saddle-stitched publication (a publication composed of large sheets of paper, folded in half and bound in the middle) the number of pages must always be a multiple of 4.

You can add pages later if necessary.

  1. To begin your page numbering on a number other than 1, click the space next to Start Page Number, then type the number.
  2. To change page numbers from the default Arabic numbers to alphabetic characters or Roman numerals, click the Numbers... button.

page numbering options

 

  1. Clicking the Numbers button will open the Page Numbering window. To select your page numbering scheme, click either:
    • Arabic numeral (1, 2, 3 . . . )
    • Upper Roman (I, II, III . . . )
    • Lower Roman (i, ii, iii . . . )
    • Upper Alphabetic (A, B, C . . . )
    • Lower Alphabetic (a, b, c . . . )
  2. Click the OK button to close the Page Numbering window.

page numbering options

 

MARGINS

  1. To set top, bottom, outside, and inside (next to the fold or binding), click in each box, then type the value in inches of your margins.

When creating a bound book, make your inside margin a bit larger than your outside margins.

setting your margins

TARGET OUTPUT RESOLUTION

The Target Output Resolution controls the resolution, or dots per inch (dpi) of your printout. Choosing a high dpi will yield a finely detailed printout, but printing will be slow. Choose a low dpi to print a draft copy. A dpi of 96 or 300 is adequate for a high-quality printout of an all-text document.

  1. Click the arrow next to the Target output resolution box.
  2. A drop-down menu of resolutions will appear. Scroll through the drop-down menu, then click the dpi of your choice.

target output resolution

 

COMPOSE TO PRINTER

  1. Click the arrow next to the Compose to printer box. A drop-down menu will appear. All of the printers connected to your computer and all of the PostScript printer drivers you have installed on your computer will appear on this menu.
  2. Scroll through the drop-down menu, then click the PostScript printer driver of your choice.

Choose your printer driver.

 

  1. Click the OK button to close the Document Setup window. Your new PageMaker document will open automatically.

Click OK to close the Document Setup window.

 

HOW TO USE ADOBE PAGEMAKER 7.0: Resizing Text Blocks

PageMaker allows you to expand and contract text blocks both vertically and horizontally. When you click on a text block with the Pointer tool, small black squares at each corner of the text block (called resize handles) and tabs at the top and bottom of the text block (called windowshade tabs) will appear. Resize handles enable you to resize text blocks both vertically and horizontally. Windowshade tabs enable you to resize text blocks vertically.

 

  1. Click the Pointer button on the Tools Palette.

Click the Pointer button.

 

 

  1. Click the text block you want to resize. You will see the resize handles and windowshade tabs appear.

 

Click the text block.

The handles will appear.

 

  1. Click a handle or windowshade, hold down the mouse button, and drag the handle.

Drag the handle to resize the text block.

 

  1. When the text block is the size you want it to be, release the mouse button.

Your text block has been resized.

 

HOW TO USE ADOBE PAGEMAKER 7.0: Formatting Columns

You can set up columns on both Master Pages and regular pages.

 

  1. On the main menu, click Layout then click Column Guides.

Click Layout then click Column Guides.

 

  1. The default number of columns is 1 (not 0.) To change the number of columns, type the number in Number of Columns.

Type the number of columns.

 

  1. The default space between columns is .167 inches (or one PICA, a unit of measurement used by professional printers). To change the space between columns, type the amount of space in Space Between Columns.

Type the space between columns.

 

  1. To set up columns differently on right and left pages, click Set right and left pages separately.

Click Set right and left pages separately.

 

  1. To automatically re-position text and graphics if you change the number of columns or the space between columns, click Adjust Layout.

Click Adjust Layout.

 

  1. Click the OK button to close the Column Guides window.

Click the OK button.

 

HOW TO USE ADOBE PAGEMAKER 7.0: Using Master Pages

Master pages are used to create objects that are placed on several different pages of a document, such as headers, footers, and page numbers.

  1. Click the L|R page indicators on the bottom left corner of your screen to go to the Master Pages.

Master Page page indicators

 

  1. Your master pages will appear. The Master Page page indicators will turn black when the Master Pages are selected.

The Master Pages are selected.

 

  1. You can type text, import files, and draw shapes on a Master Page just as you would on a regular page.

 

HOW TO USE ADOBE PAGEMAKER 7.0: Reopening the Document Setup Window

If you have already started a document but would like to change its format, you can reopen the Document Setup Window.

 

  1. Click File on the main menu.
  2. Click Document Setup . . .

Click File then Document Setup.

 

  1. The Document Setup window will open.
  2. Make your changes. (Refer to Setting Up a New Document for help.)
  3. Click the OK button when you are finished to close the Document Setup window. This will apply your changes to your PageMaker document.

Click OK to apply your changes.

 

HOW TO USE ADOBE PAGEMAKER 7.0: Adding Pages

You must set the number of pages when you start a new PageMaker document, but it's easy to add more pages later.

 

 

In this example, a four-page document is turned into a six-page document.

A document with 4 pages.

 

  1. On the main menu, click Layout then click Insert Pages.

Click Layout then click Insert Pages.

 

 

  1. The Insert Pages window will open.
  2. By default, PageMaker will insert 2 pages.

To change the number of pages inserted, click Insert then type the number of pages.

Click Insert then type the number of pages.

 

  1. By default, PageMaker will insert pages after the active page (the page you are working on).

To insert pages before the active page, click the arrow next to after then click before.

Insert pages before the active page.

 

  1. Click the arrow next to Master Page then click the name of the master you want to apply to your new pages.

Click None if you do not want to apply a master page to your new pages.

Select your Master Page.

 

  1. To apply different masters to the left and right sides of your new pages, click Set right and left pages separately.

Apply different master pages to the left and right pages.

 

 

 

  1. Clicking Set Left and Right Pages Separately will open a Left Master Page box and a Right Master Page box in the Insert Pages window.

Apply different master pages to the left and right pages.

 

 

 

  1. Click the arrow next to Left Master Page then click the master page you want to apply to your new left pages.

Click None if you do not want to apply a master page to your new left pages.

Set your left master page.

 

 

 

  1. Click the arrow next to Right Master Page then click the master page you want to apply to your new right pages.

Click None if you do not want to apply a master page to your new right pages.

Set your right master page.

 

 

  1. Click the Insert button to close the Insert Pages window.

Click the Insert button.

 

 

  1. Your new pages have been added to your document.

Your new pages have been added.

HOW TO USE PAGEMAKER 7.0: Placing Files

PageMaker is a great page layout application, but it is a slow, inefficient word processor if you are writing more than one paragraph of text at a time. It is easier to write large documents in a word processing application then import (or place) the file into your PageMaker document. You will also import graphics files into PageMaker by placing them.

  1. Click the Pointer button on the Tools Palette.

Click the Pointer button.

 

 

  1. On the Main Menu, click File then click Place.

Click File then click Place.

 

  1. The Place window will open. Click the file you want to place then click the Open button.

Click the file you want to place.

 

 

  1. Your cursor will change to look like the top left corner of a page. At this time you can still use the main menu, Tools Palette, and Page Indicators.
  2. Position your cursor where you want the story to go and click your left mouse button.

the Place cursor

 

  1. Your file is now placed in your PageMaker document.

Your file has been placed.

 

HOW TO USE ADOBE PAGEMAKER 7.0: Moving Text Blocks

To change the location of a text block, simply click it with the Pointer tool and drag it to its new location.

 

  1. Click the Pointer button on the Tools Palette.

Click the Pointer button.

 

 

  1. Click the text block you want to move, hold down the mouse button, and drag the text block.

Moving a text block.

 

  1. When you have placed the text block where you want it to go, release the mouse button.

 

When you have placed the text block, release the mouse button.

 

 

Manual Text Flow

Placing a story into more than one text block, column, or page is called flowing (or threading) text. Text can be flowed manually (by the user, one block at a time) or automatically (by PageMaker).

 

  1. Click the Pointer button on the Tools palette.

Click the Pointer button.

 

 

 

 

  1. Click the text
    block
    . . . .

Click the text block.

 

 

The windowshade tabs will appear. When you place a file that is too long to fit in the page or column, a red arrow will appear on the bottom windowshade tab.

Windowshade tabs will appear.

 

  1. Click the red arrow. . . .

Click the red arrow for the Place cursor.

 

 

The Pointer will turn into the Place cursor.

Click the red arrow for the Place cursor.

 

 

  1. Move the Place cursor to where you want your text block to go and click your mouse button to place the text.

Move the Place cursor.

 

 

 

  1. You will see plus signs (+) at the top and bottom of the text boxes to indicate that the text boxes are threaded together.

The text boxes are threaded together.

 

HOW TO USE ADOBE PAGEMAKER 7.0: Coloring Shapes and Text

  1. To open the Colors Palette, click Window then click Show Colors..

Click Window then Show Colors.

 

 

  1. Click the pointer button on the Tool Palette.

Click the Pointer button.

 

 

  1. Click the shape . . .

Click the shape.

 

. . . or select the text.

Select the text.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. You can color the line around a shape (its stroke), the object's inside (its fill), or both at once.

The Colors palette buttons.

 

 

  1. To change the stroke color, click the Stroke button on the top left of the Colors palette. Then click a color on the Colors palette.

the Stroke button

 

  1. To change the fill color, click the Fill button on the Colors palette (the middle button on the top.) Then click a color on the Colors palette.

the Fill button

 

  1. To change both the stroke and the fill at the same time, click the Stroke and Fill button on the Colors palette. Then click a color on the Colors palette.

the Stroke and Fill button

 

 

 

  1. To change the text color, click a color on the Colors palette.

 

HOW TO USE ADOBE PAGEMAKER 7.0: Wrapping Text

Text can be wrapped around a shape, frame, or placed (imported) graphic.

 

 

 

 

  1. Click the Pointer button on the Tools Palette.

Click the Pointer button.

 

  1. Click your shape, frame, or graphic to select it.

  1. Click Element on the main menu, then click Text Wrap.

 

  1. In the text wrap dialog box, under Wrap Option, click the middle option.
  2. Under Text Flow, click the last option.
  3. Under Standoff in Inches, type the amount of white space you would like to leave between the text and the shape, frame, or graphic.
  4. Click the OK button to close the Text Wrap window.

 

  1. The shape, frame, or graphic is now surrounded by a dotted line with diamond-shaped handles in each corner.

 

  1. To add another handle, double-click on the boundary of the graphic. 

 

  1. Click and drag the diamond-shaped handles to further control your text wrapping.

 

HOW TO USE PAGEMAKER 7.0: Placing Files

PageMaker is a great page layout application, but it is a slow, inefficient word processor if you are writing more than one paragraph of text at a time. It is easier to write large documents in a word processing application then import (or place) the file into your PageMaker document. You will also import graphics files into PageMaker by placing them.

  1. Click the Pointer button on the Tools Palette.

Click the Pointer button.

 

 

  1. On the Main Menu, click File then click Place.

Click File then click Place.

 

  1. The Place window will open. Click the file you want to place then click the Open button.

Click the file you want to place.

 

 

  1. Your cursor will change to look like the top left corner of a page. At this time you can still use the main menu, Tools Palette, and Page Indicators.
  2. Position your cursor where you want the story to go and click your left mouse button.

the Place cursor

 

  1. Your file is now placed in your PageMaker document.

Your file has been placed.

HOW TO USE ADOBE PAGEMAKER 7.0: Drawing Shapes and Frames

Shapes are simply graphical objects, while frames can either contain text or an imported graphic. Use frames to fit text or imported graphics into rectangle, elliptical, or polygonal shapes.

Examples of shapes and frames.

 

  1. Click a shape or frame button on the Tools Palette.

Shape and frame tools on the Tools Palette.

 

 

  1. Your pointer will turn into a crosshair (it looks like a small plus sign). Click the spot on the page where you want the shape or frame to go and hold down your mouse button.

Click and drag the crosshair.

 

  1. While holding down your mouse button, drag the crosshair. When the frame or shape is the desired size, release your mouse button.
    • To draw a perfect square, click the rectangle shape button or the rectangle frame button. Hold down the SHIFT key on your keyboard while dragging the crosshair.
    • To draw a perfect circle, click the oval shape button or the oval frame button. Hold down the SHIFT key on your keyboard while dragging the crosshair.
    • To draw a polygon with sides of equal length, click the polygon shape button or the polygon frame button. Hold down the SHIFT key on your keyboard while dragging the crosshair.

Release your mouse button when your shape or frame is the desired size.

HOW TO USE ADOBE PAGEMAKER 7.0: Automatic Text Flow

PageMaker's automatic text flow feature allows you to place text into more than one page or column simultaneously.

 

  1. Before you place your file, click Layout then click Autoflow.

Click Layout then click Autoflow.

 

  1. Place your file.

Because Autoflow is turned on, your entire story will be placed at once. PageMaker will even automatically add new pages (if needed) to your document.

 

HOW TO USE ADOBE PAGEMAKER 7.0: Coloring Shapes and Text

  1. To open the Colors Palette, click Window then click Show Colors..

Click Window then Show Colors.

 

 

  1. Click the pointer button on the Tool Palette.

Click the Pointer button.

 

 

  1. Click the shape . . .

Click the shape.

 

. . . or select the text.

Select the text.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. You can color the line around a shape (its stroke), the object's inside (its fill), or both at once.

The Colors palette buttons.

 

 

  1. To change the stroke color, click the Stroke button on the top left of the Colors palette. Then click a color on the Colors palette.

the Stroke button

 

  1. To change the fill color, click the Fill button on the Colors palette (the middle button on the top.) Then click a color on the Colors palette.

the Fill button

 

  1. To change both the stroke and the fill at the same time, click the Stroke and Fill button on the Colors palette. Then click a color on the Colors palette.

the Stroke and Fill button

 

 

 

  1. To change the text color, click a color on the Colors palette.

HOW TO USE ADOBE PAGEMAKER 7.0: Wrapping Text

Text can be wrapped around a shape, frame, or placed (imported) graphic.

 

 

 

 

  1. Click the Pointer button on the Tools Palette.

Click the Pointer button.

 

  1. Click your shape, frame, or graphic to select it.

  1. Click Element on the main menu, then click Text Wrap.

 

  1. In the text wrap dialog box, under Wrap Option, click the middle option.
  2. Under Text Flow, click the last option.
  3. Under Standoff in Inches, type the amount of white space you would like to leave between the text and the shape, frame, or graphic.
  4. Click the OK button to close the Text Wrap window.

 

  1. The shape, frame, or graphic is now surrounded by a dotted line with diamond-shaped handles in each corner.

 

  1. To add another handle, double-click on the boundary of the graphic. 

 

  1. Click and drag the diamond-shaped handles to further control your text wrapping.

HOW TO USE ADOBE PAGEMAKER 7.0: Creating a Book Publication

PageMaker uses large amount of your computer's memory when it is running, which can slow down or even crash your computer. To avoid these problems, split PageMaker documents longer than ten pages into two or more smaller documents. PageMaker's Book Publication feature will join the smaller documents together.

Tip: Save all of the PageMaker files for your book in the same directory folder.

In this example, the book publication is created with files named chapter1.p65, chapter2.p65, chapter3.p65, and chapter4.p65 that are saved in a folder named BOOK on the Windows Desktop.

 

  1. Make sure at least one of the files for your book is open (e.g.chapter4.p65).

Open chapter4.p65

 

 

  1. Go to the main menu.
  2. Click Utilities.
  3. Click Book . . .

Click Utilities, then Book to open the Book Publication List window.

 

  1. The Book Publication List window will open.

The Book Publication List window.

 

  1. Under "Files/Directories", all of the PageMaker files in the BOOK directory folder will be listed.
  2. Click chapter1.p56.

inserting files into your book publication

 

  1. Click the Insert button. . . .

Click the Insert button

 

  1. Chapter1.p56 will now appear in the Book List box.

your file is now a part of the book

 

  1. The files are listed in the order they will appear in the book. There are two ways to move chapter1.p65 before chapter4.p65.
  1. Move Chapter 1 up.
    1. Click on chapter1.p65 in the Book List box.
    2. Click the Move Up button.

move a file up in the book list

Chapter 1 has been moved to the top of the list.

 

  1. Move Chapter 4 down.
    1. Click on chapter4.p65 in the Book List box.
    2. Click the Move Down button.

Chapter 4 has been moved to the bottom of the list.

Chapter 4 has been moved to the bottom of the list.

 

  1. Auto Renumbering click:
    • To number each page in the book consecutively, click Next page .
    • To start at each file in the book publication at page 1, click None.
    • If you want to number only pages on the right side of the book (odd-numbered pages), click Next odd page.
    • if you want to number only pages on the left side of the book (even-numbered pages), click Next even page.

Click Next Page to number the entire book consecutively.

 

  1. Click the OK button.

Click OK.

 

  1. If you clicked Next Page, Next Odd Page, or Next Even Page, a window will appear that says, "Auto renumbering is selected. Do you wish to update the page numbers of all the publications in the book list now?" Click the Yes button.

Click the Yes button.

 

 

  1. If you open each file in the book publication and look at the Page Indicators, you will see that the page numbers have changed.

The page numbers have changed.

 

 

chapter1.p65

chapter1.p65

 

chapter2.p65

chapter2.p65

 

chapter3.p65

chapter3.p65

 

chapter4.p65

chapter4.p65

 

 

 MICROSOFT WORD UPDATE

 

INTORDUCTION TO COMPUTER.

What is Computer? Is an electronic device (calculator) that accepts data, interpret and can use the data supplied to solve a problem based on information earlier given to it. We are all familiar with what a computer is in a specific, contemporary sense. Personal computers are found in most aspects of daily life, and for some it is hard to even imagine a world without them. But the term computer means more than simply the Macs and PCs we are familiar with. A computer is, at its most basic, a machine which can take instructions, and perform computations based on those instructions. A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of instructions

 

        AREAS OF APPLICATION OF COMPUTER.

  1. In military: For sending missiles and bombs.
  2. In school: For teaching acquisition (library) for strong student data base. The capability of interacting with learners makes computers as powerful tools for enhancing the process of learning. In addition, computers also play an important role in searching information and school administration. In this unit, we will introduce how computers are used as learning and teaching tools, and as administrative tools.
  3. Internet: Registration, changing mail.
  4. Communication: Telecommunication.
  5. Business: Reservation transactions file interrogation in banking. Computers are widely used in business nowadays. In this unit, we will introduce their uses in banking, supermarkets and transaction payments.
  6. Medical: Diagnosis. Role of computers used in medicine, uses of computers in health care and importance of computers in medicine fields. The influence of computers is universal. Computers are used in applications ranging from running a farm, diagnosing a disease, and designing to constructing and launching a space vehicle. Because the development of computers has been largely the work of scientists, it is natural that a large body of computer applications serves the scientist. To solve scientific problems researchers must deal with the language of science: mathematics. To understand more deeply complex natural phenomena, scientists must use complex mathematical relationships and volumes of data too impossible to manage without the aid of computers. Many scientific computer programs serve the entire population. The links included herein relate to medicine and health care.
  7. Games: Recreation is another area of computer application. You can play electronic golf at home. You can play chess with the computer as your opponent. Some software combines entertainment and education. In this unit, we will describe different types of computer games and explain why they have 'intelligence', edutainment and special movie effects produced by computers.
  8. Transportation: Although drafting tables and T-squares are still around, more and more engineers and architects are designing products with computers

                                         

                                       

 

 

 

 HISTORY

1.      Abacus: in eastern enrolled for counting is an arrangement beads or sillings.

Eastern abacus

The simple abacus has ten beads per column. It isn't really used any more for calculation, although children sometimes use them to learn about numbers. Abacuses are still used in the Far East, but they look more like the abacus below.

          

The zero position is for all beads to be away from the central bar, as the beads on the left are. The top two beads represent five each, and the bottom beads represent one. The unit’s column has a single 'one' bead and no 'five' beads, so this is one. The tens column has one 'five' bead and two 'one beads, representing 70. The hundreds has a 'five' bead alone, so that is 500. Then there is 3000 and 60,000. So the total number is 63,571.

This sort of abacus is easier to use, as the human eye finds it a lot easier to detect five beads or less, rather than larger numbers up to ten. You can quickly see the difference between 7 (a 'five' and two 'one's) and 8 (a 'five' and three 'one's), but 7 and 8 look similar on the simple abacus. You can see that the Romans would like this sort of abacus, as they had a symbol for five as well as a symbol for one. You may wonder why there are two fives as well as five ones, allowing a value up to fifteen in a single column. It's for much the same reason as the simple abacus having ten beads in a column. It allows you to store a number before having to carry it.

Below is an abacus of this type for you to play with. Click on the beads to move them.

 

 

      Along the parallel areas (rods) the count or are divides into                                                                                   section by means of a bar perpendicular to the rods.

2.      Astrolabe :

The astrolabe is a very ancient astronomical computer for solving problems relating to time and the position of the Sun and stars in the sky. Several types of astrolabes have been made. By far the most popular type is the planispheric astrolabe, on which the celestial sphere is projected onto the plane of the equator. A typical old astrolabe was made of brass and was about 6 inches (15 cm) in diameter, although much larger and smaller ones were made.

Astrolabes are used to show how the sky looks at a specific place at a given time. This is done by drawing the sky on the face of the astrolabe and marking it so positions in the sky are easy to find. To use an astrolabe, you adjust the moveable components to a specific date and time. Once set, the entire sky, both visible and invisible, is represented on the face of the instrument. This allows a great many astronomical problems to be solved in a very visual way. Typical uses of the astrolabe include finding the time during the day or night, finding the time of a celestial event such as sunrise or sunset and as a handy reference of celestial positions. Astrolabes were also one of the basic astronomy education tools in the late Middle Ages. Old instruments were also used for astrological purposes. The typical astrolabe was not a navigational instrument although an instrument called the mariner's astrolabe was widely used. The mariner's astrolabe is simply a ring marked in degrees for measuring celestial altitudes.

The history of the astrolabe begins more than two thousand years ago. The principles of the astrolabe projection were known before 150 B.C., and true astrolabes were made before A.D. 400. The astrolabe was highly developed in the Islamic world by 800 and was introduced to Europe from Islamic Spain (Andalusia) in the early 12th century. It was the most popular astronomical instrument until about 1650, when it was replaced by more specialized and accurate instruments. Astrolabes are still appreciated for their unique capabilities and their value for astronomy education.

 

             

3.BLAISE PASCAL: A 19years old French boy, 1642 in free is helping is father for the farm inverted the pascaline. A machine that could  perform only additions and subtraction. Blaise Pascal Western Philosophy 17th-century philosophy
Blaise Pascal Full name Blaise Pascal Born June 19, 1623(1623-06-19)
Died August 19, 1662 (aged 39) School/tradition Continental Philosophy, precursor to existentialism Main interests Theology, Mathematics Notable ideas Pascal's Wager, Pascal's triangle, Pascal's law

 

4.Sir Morland: In England on aware of which one was used for calculating  pounds & strillings and the 8th food provide access to recalculated table (1668-1666). a non-decimal adding machine (working with English pounds, shillings and pence)

a machine that made trigonometric calculations

"A new Multiplying Instrument" invented by Samuel Morland, 1666

an 'arithmetical machine' by which the four fundamental rules of arithmetic were readily worked "without charging the memory, disturbing the mind, or exposing the operations to any uncertainty" (regarded by some as the world's first multiplying machine, an example is in the Science Museum in South Kensington).

5.   GOTTFRIED WILHELM LEIBNIZ: 1690 invented the STEPPED GEAR OR STEPPED RECKONER is machine could for addition and subtraction Perform fusion multiplication Refraction of square root.

 

6. CHARLES BABBAGE: He is the first to introduce electricity into computer, the invented a proto- type of what is known today as a computer, is machine the ANALTRICAL ENGINE has in it the resemblance of all component of a today computer e.g. punched card. CHARLES BABBAGE (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer who originated the concept of a programmable computer. Parts of his uncompleted mechanisms are on display in the London Science Museum. In 1991, a perfectly functioning difference engine was constructed from Babbage's original plans. Built to tolerances achievable in the 19th century, the success of the finished engine indicated that Babbage's machine would have worked. Nine years later, the Science Museum completed the printer Babbage had designed for the difference engine, an astonishingly complex device for the 19th century. Considered a "father of the computer" Babbage is credited with inventing the first mechanical computer that eventually led to more complex designs. Soon after the attempt at making the difference engine crumbled, Babbage started designing a different, more complex machine called the Analytical Engine. The engine is not a single physical machine but a succession of designs that he tinkered with until his death in 1871. The main difference between the two engines is that the Analytical Engine could be programmed using punch cards. He realized that programs could be put on these cards so the person had only to create the program initially, and then put the cards in the machine and let it run. The analytical engine would have used loops of Jacquard's punched cards to control a mechanical calculator, which could formulate results based on the results of preceding computations. This machine was also intended to employ several features subsequently used in modern computers, including sequential control, branching, and looping, and would have been the first mechanical device to be Turing-complete.

 

GORGE BOOLE: For the early is written by George Boole is the basis for all computers programming logic code. As the inventor of Boolean logic, which is the basis of modern digital computer logic, Boole is regarded in hindsight as one of the founders of the field of computer science. Boole said,

... no general method for the solution of questions in the theory of probabilities can be established which does not explicitly recognize ... those universal laws of thought which are the bases of all reasoning. George Boole's father, John Boole (1779–1848), was a tradesman of limited means, but of "studious character and active mind". Being especially interested in mathematical science and logic, the father gave his son his first lessons; but the extraordinary mathematical talents of George Boole did not manifest themselves in early life. Boole's work (as well as that of his intellectual progeny) was relatively obscure, except among logicians. At the time, it appeared to have no practical uses. However, approximately seventy years after Boole's death, Claude Shannon attended a philosophy class at the University of Michigan which introduced him to Boole's studies. Shannon recognized that Boole's work could form the basis of mechanisms and processes in the real world and that it was therefore highly relevant.

 

 

 

HERMAN HOLLERITH: (February 29, 1860 – November 17, 1929) was a German-American statistician who developed a mechanical tabulator based on punched cards in order to rapidly tabulate statistics from millions of pieces of data. He was the founder of the company that became IBM.  In 1880 developed the punched card (An American) while working the census body in 1880 is machine was able to complete in the 1years and 7 months. What could have 100 class 10years and 11 months to complete. Hollerith had left teaching and begun working for the United States Census Office in the year he filed his first patent application. Titled "Art of Compiling Statistics", it was filed on September 23, 1884; U.S. Patent No. 395782 was granted on January 8, 1889.[4]

Hollerith built machines under contract for the Census Office, which used them to tabulate the 1890 census in only one year.[5] The 1880 census had taken eight years. Hollerith then started his own business in 1896, founding the Tabulating Machine Company. Most of the major census bureaus around the world leased his equipment and purchased his cards, as did major insurance companies. To make his system work, he invented the first automatic card-feed mechanism and the first key punch (i.e. a punch that was operated from a keyboard), which allowed a skilled operator to punch 200–300 cards per hour. He also invented a tabulator. The 1890 Tabulator was hardwired to operate only on 1890 Census cards. A control panel in his 1906 Type I Tabulator allowed it to do different jobs without having to be rebuilt (the first step towards programming).These inventions were the foundation of the modern information processing industry.

In 1911, four corporations, including Hollerith's firm, merged to form the Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation (CTR).[6] Under the presidency of Thomas J. Watson, it was renamed International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) in 1924.

 

 

JOHN V.ATANASOFE: John Vincent Atanasoff (IPA: [ata'nasɔf]) (October 4, 1903 – June 15, 1995) was an American physicist. The 1973 decision of the patent suit Honeywell v. Sperry Rand named him the inventor of the first automatic electronic digital computer, a special-purpose machine that has come to be called the Atanasoff–Berry Computer.

The son of a Bulgarian immigrant who became an electrical engineer, Atanasoff held positions as a teaching professor, a governmental wartime research director, and a corporate research executive before being recognized in the 1970s and 1980s for digital electronic computer research he conducted at Iowa State College in the late 1930s and early 1940s. A mathematical and physics built what. They invented Emac (Electronic Numerical integrated calculator).

 

GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER

Since the development of the mark the digital computer has evolved at extremely rapid pace the secession. The advances in computer hardware most notably in logic circuit and storage systems are generally discussed in terms of concept of generation.

      Each stage of development is associated with one fort of technologies innovation or another each generation is usually better than the previous by making possible certain which were not possible with the earlier generation.

First generation: J.P.E.C kert and manchly ushered in the first generation of modern day computers with.

 

FIRST GENERATION OF COMPUTER (vacuum tube 1940-1956):

The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. A magnetic drum, also referred to as drum, is a metal cylinder coated with magnetic iron-oxide material on which data and programs can be stored. Magnetic drums were once used as a primary storage device but have since been implemented as auxiliary storage devices. The tracks on a magnetic drum are assigned to channels located around the circumference of the drum, forming adjacent circular bands that wind around the drum. A single drum can have up to 200 tracks. As the drum rotates at a speed of up to 3,000 rpm, the device’s read/write heads deposit magnetized spots on the drum during the write operation and sense these spots during a read operation. This action is similar to that of a magnetic tape or disk drive.

They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions. First generation computers relied on machine language to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. Machine languages are the only languages understood by computers. While easily understood by computers, machine languages are almost impossible for humans to use because they consist entirely of numbers. Programmers therefore, use either a high-level programming language or an assembly language. An assembly language contains the same instructions as a machine language, but the instructions and variables have names instead of being just numbers.

Programs written in high-level languages are translated into assembly language or machine language by a compiler. Assembly language programs are translated into machine language by a program called an assembler.

ENTAC (Electronic Numerical Interior And Calculator) in 1976 it was the first all purpose all electronic digital computer, unlike earlier machine it used vacuum tubes instead of relays as its active logic element there was substantial increase in computational speed due to the use of electron tube –this computer was more than 1000 times faster than its electron chemical processors could execute an average of 50 basic arithmetic operation per second.

In 1947 the Hungarian mathematics John, Von Newman devised a method of covering the ENTAC concepts of an externally programmed concept this stored. Program concept led to the development of the self modifying computer. Electronic digital computer include UNIVAC -1(Universal automatic computer) built in 1951 this also utilized vacuum tubes) its mean memory consist of mercury relay lines

 

 

SECOND GENERATION :( 1956-1963: Transistors)

This generation was between late fifties and early sixties invention of semi conductor devices know as TRANSISTORS in electronic engineering led to the development of this generation of computers. Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. Transistor is a device composed of semiconductor material that amplifies a signal or opens or closes a circuit. Invented in 1947at Bell Labs, transistors have become the key ingredient of all digital circuits, including computers. Today's microprocessors contain tens of millions of microscopic transistors.

After a series of development in transistors for about 10 years, it becomes a viable alternative to the vacuum tubes the small size of the transistor, it greater rehabilitee and its comparatively low power consumption made it for superior to the latter heat By using transistor in control arithmetic and logic circuit were along with an improved magnetic care memory manufactures were able to produce more efficient, smaller and faster (50,000,000) operations per seconds) digital systems

The transistors helped in building a series of processors operating at nano-second spread range with lover level of generated.

 

 

THIRD GENERATION (Integrated Circuits 1964-1971)

During late 1960 and 1970 an important technology innovations resulting in dramatic advances in computers hardware the break through in the fabrication integrated cycle of the (integrated circlet)(IC) a solid state device consisting of hundreds of transistors diodes, and resistors in a tiny silicon chip the impact of integrated circuitry permitted the construction of integrated main frame (large scale) computer of higher operating speed capacity reliability at substantially lover cost it also helped the engineers to design mini computers. The next major development was large scale integration(LSI)which made it possible to pack thousands of transistors and related devices on a single integrated circuit this also led to the invention the me nor processor which is an integrated circuit on a single silicon chip that contain all the arithmetic, logic and control circuitry which make up a digital computer C.P.U the C.P.U (central processing unit)is the part of the digital computer that interprete and executed instruction the development of the      C.P.U into a single integrate circuit led to the production of micro computers

                           

 

FOURTH GENERATION (1971-Present: Microprocessors)

The sets of computers produced in the 1980s were referred to as fourth generation computers there is His clear difference between their and the third generation. The major distinguishing characteristic feature is attributed to the availability of the VERY LARGE-SCALE INTEGRATED (VLSI) as compared to is of the third generation. This technology has vastly increase the circuit density of micro processor memory and support chips worth of note’s is the fact that very large scale integrated circuit contain thousand of computers in a silicon ship less than 0.2 inch (5mm) square the very large scale integrated circuit hold hundreds of thousands of electron component within the same amount of space (A micro processor- is a central processing unit fabricated or a chip).

   This generation interested the flooding of the market within the a wide variety of soft ware tools like database, management system, word processing, package spread , sheet package, game package etc. it also witnessed the enhancement on networking capabilities in the areas of LAN (Local Areas Network) very large and high sea .

 

 

FIFTH GENERATION (Present and Beyond: Artificial Intelligence)

This generation of computers is yet to be in the market because of the features excepted that the architecture of his generation will be a bit different from Von Neumann’s model of the previous generation.

Artificial Intelligence (AD) should be major feature of his generation such machines world have the capability to reasons to recognize relationships and to learn and improve their performance on the basic of experience. It also expected that they would not have to be resonated step by step as to carry out specific tasks as required by current computer. Artificial Intelligence is the branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Artificial intelligence includes:

Ø      Games Playing: Programming computers to play games such as chess and checkers

 

Ø      Expert Systems: Programming computers to make decisions in real-life situations (for example, some expert systems help doctors diagnose diseases based on symptoms)

 

Ø      Natural Language: Programming computers to understand natural human languages

 

Ø      Neural Networks: Systems that simulate intelligence by attempting to reproduce the types of physical connections that occur in animal brains

 

Ø      Robotics: Programming computers to see and hear and react to other sensory stimuli

Currently, no computers exhibit full artificial intelligence (that is, are able to simulate human behavior). The greatest advances have occurred in the field of games playing. The best computer chess programs are now capable of beating humans. In May, 1997, an IBM super-computer called Deep Blue defeated world chess champion Gary Kasparov in a chess match.

 

 

                           TYPE OF COMPUTER 

Computers are categories base on different properties or characteristic conventionally. However they are categories in two basic groups.

1.      Based on evolution (types).

2.      Capacity (classes). This group is known as classes of computers.

         

 

CLASSES OF COMPUTER

 

MAINFRAME COMPUTER:

This are the first set of electronic chemical that made up the first generation of computer. Multi-user. Requires special environment (air-conditioning) and possibly water cooling. Requires special power supply. IBM 360, Burroughs, ICL 1900.

             

CHARACTERISTICS

a.      Were very big “Big size” Occupy large floor area.

b.      Generate a lot of heat

c.       Consume lot of power

d.      They are internal memory good up to 4mb

e.      They are operated by professional.

 

MINI COMPUTER:

The second generation of computers. 16 or 32 bit CPU, but not a microprocessor chip. May run a multi-user operating system. Connected to serial terminals. May require special environment, i.e. air-conditioning or special power. DEC PDP-8, DEC PDP-11, HP 2100, HLH Orion, Prime, DEC VAX

                   

       

                     CHARACTERISTICS

a.            Besides was about that of a frigate

b.            Generate less than the main frame.

c.             Internal memory of about 1mb

d.            They are operated from terminate.

 

MICRO COMPUTER:

Includes third, fourth, generation of computer. They make use of integrated circuit in their CPU. Microprocessor-based machine designed for home use. Built-in video display for use with domestic TV. Data and program storage on audio cassettes, possibly with a ROM cartridge port. Very often running BASIC from ROM. Cased with power supply (possibly external wall-wart). 16 or 32 bit CPU, UNIX, bit-mapped graphics, networking, hard disk. Single user. UNIX operating system, window system. No special environment or power supply required.

 

                 CHARACTERISTICS

a.            They consoled the last power

b.            They are very mobile

c.             They generate last heat. The other category of

d.            Computer is based on the mode of operations known as.

 

SUPERCOMPUTER

Very fast computer utilizing special techniques of design and construction to maximize power. May be highly parallel or massively parallel. Requires special environment (air-conditioning) and probably water cooling. Requires special power supply. CDC 6600, Cray-1, CDC Cyber, transporter machines.

 

 

TYPE OF COM PUTER

  1. Analogue computer
  2. Digital computer
  3. Hybrid computer

 

ANALOGUE COMPUTER:

Mechanical analog computers were very important in gun fire control in World War II and the Korean War; they were made in significant numbers. In particular, development of transistors made electronic analog computers practical, and before digital computers had developed sufficiently, they were commonly used in science and industry.

Analog computers can have a very wide range of complexity. Slide rules and monographs are the simplest, while naval gun fire control computers and large hybrid digital/analogue computers were among the most complicated. Digital computers have a certain minimum (and relatively great) degree of complexity that is far greater than that of the simpler analog computers. This complexity is required to execute their stored programs, and in many instances for creating output that is directly suited to human use.

Is a computer that makes use of similaries in proportions of physical content (qualities e.g. current motion bag or mechanical barometer, Analogue phone, Analog clock). They make use of continuous physical changes. -  

 

DIGITAL COMPUTER:

Is a computer that utilizes discrete (discontinuous) assessment of physical quantities (particles) .A digital computer reads or understands everything as land so that is, binary operations

 

Example: 6 to binary operation=1101

In 6=4 bytes

A digit complete 8 bits a(e.g.)a,s,2,1,8,9,0,;,”,!)

8 digit binary usually a 2000 and a digit 2014

                                         1101{0000}

 Digit zone zero zone

 

DIGITAL COMPUTER MEMORY QUANTIFICATION

8 bits

1 kb

1kb=1024 or 2110x1 byte

1024bx1024b=1mb

(210x210) byte =220 byte =GB

How many kilo bytes are in 1mb?

1mb=1024 byte x 1024 byte

 

HYBRID COMPUTER:

Is the selective combination of analogue and digital computer? Here is an intermediate device, a 'hybrid' computer, in which an analog output is converted into standard digits. The information then can be sent into a standard digital computer for further computation. Because of their ease of use and because of technological breakthroughs in digital computers in the early 70s, the analog-digital hybrids were replacing the analog-only systems. Hybrid computers are used to obtain a very accurate but not very mathematically precise 'seed' value, using an analog computer front-end, which value is then fed into a digital computer, using an iterative process to achieve the final desired degree of precision. With a three or four digit precision, highly-accurate numerical seed, the total computation time necessary to reach the desired precision is dramatically reduced, since many fewer digital iterations are required (and the analog computer reaches its result almost instantaneously). Or, for example, the analog computer might be used to solve a non-analytic differential equation problem for use at some stage of an overall computation (where precision is not very important). In any case, the hybrid computer is usually substantially faster than a digital computer, but can supply a far more precise computation than an analog computer. It is useful for real-time applications requiring such a combination (e.g., a high frequency phased-array radar or a weather system computation).

 

*digital is faster and more accurate.

*Analogue is total in control.

1mb=1kb +1kb = (1kb2) =1024.kb

To byte= (1024)2 bite

=1024x1kb

= (1024.x1024) byte

=1024kb

=210kb

 

THE HARDWARE COMPONENTS

The hardware are the parts of computer itself including the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and related microchips and micro-circuitry, keyboards, monitors, case and drives (hard, CD, DVD, floppy, optical, tape, etc...). Other extra parts called peripheral components or devices include mouse, printers, modems, scanners, digital cameras and cards (sound, colour, video) etc... Together they are often referred to as a personal computer.

Central Processing Unit - Though the term relates to a specific chip or the processor a CPU's performance is determined by the rest of the computer's circuitry and chips.

Currently the Pentium chip or processor, made by Intel, is the most common CPU though there are many other companies that produce processors for personal computers. Examples are the CPU made by Motorola and AMD.

CONVENTIONAL HARDWARE COMPONENTS CLASSIFICATION  

  1. THE CPU
  2. PERIPHERA UNIT

                            

                                  

                                               MEMORY UNIT                              

                                                                                                    OUTPUT        

           INPUT UNIT                    ALU UNIT                                       UNIT

                                                                                                                

                                                    CONTROL UNIT



 


                                              

 

 

 

CPU

The hardware components are those parts of the computer system that you can touch and feel (physical parts)

The hardware components can be divided into two major parts namely:

1)      The central processing unit

2)      The peripheral unit

The central processing unit is the heart of the computer system without which any computer can not work. It is the main panel or board working on the system.

The CPU is therefore divided into three major parts MU, ALU & CU.

MU: Memory Unit the stores and allows smooth transmissions of signal or information within the system. The MU stores a character e.g. 1, 2, 3……. 0 or a, b, c….z or, Etc.

Using an 8bit or a byte arranged into a digit zone (4bits) and zero zone (4bits) as 1s

and 0s.

 

MEMORY UNIT

                                   TYPE OF MEMORY

  1. Primary/ Main memory: This is permanently fixed on the CPU and as a part of the CPU e.g. ROM and RAM.
  2. Auxiliary/ Second Memory: This is additional memory (usually slots) to enhance the smooth, operations of the system. E.g. hard disk, CD flash and so on storage devices

 

ROM- Read Only Memory

RAM- Random Access Memory.

 

Access width: This is the numbers of signal that are allowed to be transmitted from one point to the other, at a time.

 

                         A.W                                                          

                                                                                        

                                                                1

                                                                                                                                                      

                                                                                                1 byte

                                                                                                 2 byte

 

BUS: This is a metallic conductor that carries signals from one point to another

                             

                                  TYPES OF BUSES

  1. INTERNAL BUS: Transmits signal within  the CPU
  2. EXTERNAL BUS: Carries signals form the CPU to the peripheral units.

 

 

CU: The Control Unit co-ordinate the step by step operation of the CPU or the system as a whole.

 

ALU: Arithmetic and Logic Units Arithmetic –for calculation logic- for decisions or logical operation of the computer system.

 

 

 

 

THE PERIPHERAL UNIT:

This is the additional parts to the CPU and it’s divided into OUTPUT UNIT and INPUT UNIT.

 

OUTPUT UNIT: These are set of devices that are used to retrieve or extract or get out information from the computer system (CPU) e.g. monitor, printer.

 

INPUT UNIT: For feeding the computer with relevant information e.g. disk (CD) scanner, keyboard.

 

GENERALIZED HARDWARE COMPONENTS (NON-CONVENTIONAL)

With faster processors the clock speed becomes more important. Compared to some of the first computers which operated at below 30 megahertz (MHz) the Pentium chips began at 75 MHz in the late 1990's. Speeds now exceed 3000+ MHz or 3 gigahertz (GHz) and different chip manufacturers use different measuring standards (check your local computer store for the latest speed). It depends on the circuit board that the chip is housed in, or the motherboard, as to whether you are able to upgrade to a faster chip. The motherboard contains the circuitry and connections that allow the various components to communicate with each other.

Though there were many computers using many different processors previous to this I call the 80286 processor the advent of home computers as these were the processors that made computers available for the average person. Using a processor before the 286 involved learning a proprietary system and software. Most new software is being developed for the newest and fastest processors so it can be difficult to use an older computer system.

Keyboard - The keyboard is used to type information into the computer or input information. There are many different keyboard layouts and sizes with the most common for Latin based languages being the QWERTY layout (named for the first 6 keys). The standard keyboard has 101 keys. Notebooks have embedded keys accessible by special keys or by pressing key combinations (CTRL or Command and P for example). Ergonomically designed keyboards are designed to make typing easier. Hand held devices have various and different keyboard configurations and touch screens.

Some of the keys have a special use. There are referred to as command keys. The 3 most common are the Control or CTRL, Alternate or Alt and the Shift keys though there can be more (the Windows key for example or the Command key). Each key on a standard keyboard has one or two characters. Press the key to get the lower character and hold Shift to get the upper.

Removable Storage and/or Disk Drives - All disks need a drive to get information off - or read - and put information on the disk - or write. Each drive is designed for a specific type of disk whether it is a CD, DVD, hard disk or floppy. Often the term 'disk' and 'drive' are used to describe the same thing but it helps to understand that the disk is the storage device which contains computer files - or software - and the drive is the mechanism that runs the disk.Mouse

Digital flash drives work slightly differently as they use memory cards to store information so there are no moving parts. Digital cameras also use Flash memory cards to store information, in this case photographs. Hand held devices use digital drives and many also use memory cards.

Mouse - Most modern computers today are run using a mouse controlled pointer. Generally if the mouse has two buttons the left one is used to select objects and text and the right one is used to access menus. If the mouse has one button (Mac for instance) it controls all the activity and a mouse with a third button can be used by specific software programs.

One type of mouse has a round ball under the bottom of the mouse that rolls and turns two wheels which control the direction of the pointer on the screen. Another type of mouse uses an optical system to track the movement of the mouse. Laptop computers use touch pads, buttons and other devices to control the pointer. Hand held use a combination of devices to control the pointer, including touch screens.

Note: It is important to clean the mouse periodically, particularly if it becomes sluggish. A ball type mouse has a small circular panel that can be opened, allowing you to remove the ball. Lint can be removed carefully with a tooth pick or tweezers and the ball can be washed with mild detergent. A build up will accumulate on the small wheels in the mouse. Use a small instrument or finger nail to scrape it off taking care not to scratch the wheels. Track balls can be cleaned much like a mouse and touch-pad can be wiped with a clean, damp cloth. An optical mouse can accumulate material from the surface that it is in contact with which can be removed with a finger nail or small instrument.

Monitors - The monitor shows information on the screen when you type. This is called outputting information. When the computer needs more information it will display a message on the screen, usually through a dialog box. Monitors come in many types and sizes. The resolution of the monitor determines the sharpness of the screen. The resolution can be adjusted to control the screen's display.

Most desktop computers use a monitor with a cathode tube or liquid crystal display. Most notebooks use a liquid crystal display monitor.

To get the full benefit of today's software with full colour graphics and animation, computers need a color monitor with a display or graphics card.

Printers - The printer takes the information on your screen and transfers it to paper or a hard copy. There are many different types of printers with various levels of quality. The three basic types of printer are; dot matrix, inkjet, and laser.

  • Dot matrix printers work like a typewriter transferring ink from a ribbon to paper with a series or 'matrix' of tiny pins.
  • An ink jet printer work like dot matrix printers but fires a stream of ink from a cartridge directly onto the paper.
  • Laser printers use the same technology as a photocopier using heat to transfer toner onto paper.

Modem - A modem is used to translate information transferred through telephone lines, cable or line-of-site wireless.

The term stands for modulate and demodulate which changes the signal from digital, which computers use, to analog, which telephones use and then back again. Digital modems transfer digital information directly without changing to analog.

Modems are measured by the speed that the information is transferred. The measuring tool is called the baud rate. Originally modems worked at speeds below 2400 baud but today analog speeds of 56,000 are standard. Cable, wireless or digital subscriber lines can transfer information much faster with rates of 300,000 baud and up.

Modems also use Error Correction which corrects for transmission errors by constantly checking whether the information was received properly or not and Compression which allows for faster data transfer rates. Information is transferred in packets. Each packet is checked for errors and is re-sent if there is an error.

Anyone who has used the Internet has noticed that at times the information travels at different speeds. Depending on the amount of information that is being transferred, the information will arrive at it's destination at different times. The amount of information that can travel through a line is limited. This limit is called bandwidth.

There are many more variables involved in communication technology using computers, much of which is covered in the section on the Internet.

Scanners- Scanners allow you to transfer pictures and photographs to your computer. A scanner 'scans' the image from the top to the bottom, one line at a time and transfers it to the computer as a series of bits or a bitmap. You can then take that image and use it in a paint program, send it out as a fax or print it. With optional Optical Character Recognition (OCR) software you can convert printed documents such as newspaper articles to text that can be used in your word processor. Most scanners use TWAIN software that makes the scanner accessible by other software applications.

Digital cameras allow you to take digital photographs. The images are stored on a memory chip or disk that can be transferred to your computer. Some cameras can also capture sound and video.

Case - The case houses the microchips and circuitry that run the computer. Desktop models usually sit under the monitor and tower models beside. They come in many sizes, including desktop, mini, midi, and full tower. There is usually room inside to expand or add components at a later time. By removing the cover off the case you may find plate covered empty slots that allow you to add cards. There are various types of slots including IDE, ASI, USB, PCI and Fire wire slots.

Depending on the type notebook computers may have room to expand. Most Notebooks also have connections or ports that allow expansion or connection to exterior, peripheral devices such as monitor, portable hard-drives or other devices.

Cards - Cards are components added to computers to increase their capability. When adding a peripheral device makes sure that your computer has a slot of the type needed by the device.

Sound cards allow computers to produce sound like music and voice. The older sound cards were 8 bit then 16 bit then 32 bit. Though the human ear can't distinguish the fine difference between sounds produced by the more powerful sound card they allow for more complex music and music production.

Colour cards allow computers to produce colour (with a colour monitor of course). The first colour cards were 2 bit which produced 4 colours [CGA]. It was amazing what could be done with those 4 colours. Next came 4 bit allowing for 16 [EGA and VGA] colours. Then came 16 bit allowing for 1064 colours and then 24 bit which allows for almost 17 million colours and now 32 bit and higher allow monitors to display almost a billion separate colours.

Video cards allow computers to display video and animation. Some video cards allow computers to display television as well as capture frames from video. A video card with a digital video camera allows computers users to produce live video. A high speed connection is required for effective video transmission.

Network cards allow computers to connect together to communicate with each other. Network cards have connections for cable, thin wire or wireless networks. For more information see the section on Networks.

Cables connect internal components to the Motherboard, which is a board with series of electronic path ways and connections allowing the CPU to communicate with the other components of the computer.

Memory - Memory can be very confusing but is usually one of the easiest pieces of hardware to add to your computer. It is common to confuse chip memory with disk storage. An example of the difference between memory and storage would be the difference between a table where the actual work is done (memory) and a filing cabinet where the finished product is stored (disk). To add a bit more confusion, the computer's hard disk can be used as temporary memory when the program needs more than the chips can provide.

Random Access Memory or RAM is the memory that the computer uses to temporarily store the information as it is being processed. The more information being processed the more RAMS the computer needs.

One of the first home computers used 64 kilobytes of RAM memory (Commodore 64). Today's modern computers need a minimum of 64 Mb (recommended 128 Mb or more) to run Windows or OS 10 with modern software.

RAM memory chips come in many different sizes and speeds and can usually be expanded. Older computers came with 512 Kb of memory which could be expanded to a maximum of 640 Kb. In most modern computers the memory can be expanded by adding or replacing the memory chips depending on the processor you have and the type of memory your computer uses. Memory chips range in size from 1 Mb to 4 Gb. As computer technology changes the type of memory changes as well making old memory chips obsolete. Check your computer manual to find out what kind of memory your computer uses before purchasing new memory chips.

 

 

 

 

THE SOFTWARE COMPONENTS

Software is a generic term for all sort of program that runs on the hard ware system. The hard ware System on its own it is gust a bunch of electrical gadgets which at most could deliver a fatal electrical shock at most when powered.

It is the software that drives the hardware.

The software is designed to exploit and potential capabilities of the hardware to the intending user. Component-based software engineering (CBSE) (also known as component-based development (CBD)) is a branch of software engineering, the priority of which is the separation of concerns in respect of the wide-ranging functionality available throughout a given software system. This practice brings about an equally wide-ranging degree of benefits in both the short-term and the long-term for the software itself and the organization that sponsors it.

Components are considered to be part of the starting platform for service orientation throughout software engineering, for example Web Services, and more recently, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) - whereby a component is converted into a service and subsequently inherits further characteristics beyond that of an ordinary component. Components can produce events or consume events and can be used for event driven architecture (EDA).

 

                                

CLASSIFICATION

Software are classified into two major group

  1. system program
  2. Application program.

    

SYSTEM PROGRAM:

These refer to be the suite program that facilities the optimal use of the hardware.

System and or provide suitable environment for the Writing editing bagging testing and kinking of program

Usually every computer system comes with a collection of these suites of program which are provided by the hardware manufactures. They constitute an essential part of any computer system. Examples of these class or program are:

The operating system, the language process or loaded Editor etc he will deliberate on some of them below.

 

OPERATING SYSTEM:

An operating system (OS) is a suite of program acting as an interface between the uses of computers on one hand and the hardware on the other.

It provides the uses with features that make it easily for him to code, test execute, debug and maintain his program while efficiently managing the hardware resources one of the suite called the EXECUTIVE PROGRAM

Remain resident in the main store and controls all other program running a user program involves several step hear.

  1. Irritation of language processor
  2. Provision of data.
  3. Irritation of executive of object program
  4. Removal of result if a computer system has no us it follows that most of these tasks will be carried out by the operator. In essence the processor will idle most of the time which again will affect the thought output of the system.

                       

                    

 

                                   Software component

        



 

 


       System program                            application program                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     














 


                    900%                                                 

         70%                                10%                            word       Spread     graphed operating                     utility               processing     sheet   e.g. Corel draw

  System                   software

                                                                                                     Database         integrated

30% language translator

 
                                                                                                   e.g. ms access       software

                                                                                                                                 (Office)

                                                                                                                            (Ms Office)

                                                           Accounting package

                                                              (Sage or Peachtree)

 

LANGUAGE TRANSLATOR:

There are programs that translate individuals (operator) language etc machine language. They make available signal supplied by the operator to the machine and vice versa.

These are three type of Language Translator

a.       Assembler: Send signal line by line.

b.      Interpreter: This is specific for BASIC programming all purpose symbolic instruction is different from PASCAL used for calculation.

c.       Complement: It is up to date L.T can program in any language e.g. systematic meaning syntax (sound) lexical structure or code.

 

ULTILITY SOFTWARE

These enhance operation of the cds by making possible certain things that over not possible with the C.D only example are:  (word to word)

a.      FILE COPY. Enables copying file from one application to another.

b.      FILE CONVERSION: Copy one file frown once application e.g. Ms-word to Corel draw

c.       FILE INTERROGATION: Accessing in data base formats.

d.      ROUTINE CHECKS: Monitor system operations.

e.       LIBRARY PROGRAM: That work as the one for solves a particular problem stored and controls all other programs running.

 

A user program involves of several step like:

·        Initiation of language processor.

·        Provision of data.

·        Initiation of execution of object program

·        Removal of result in computer has now it follows that’s most of the time which again will affect thought out print of the system.

 

 

APPLICATION PACKAGES.

Are purchased programs of packages to enhance the operation of yours system.

 

                     TYPES

  1. Word processing package e.g. word perfect, MS word
  2. Spreadsheet .P: e.g. Excel.
  3. Database: M.S access
  4. Graphic e.g. Corel draw, Power Point, paints etc
  5. Integrated programs e.g.  M.S office.
  6. Utility Software: Anti-virus, Diagnostics Software.

    

 

VIRUSES

A computer virus is a program or code capable of attacking itself to other program (HOST) which eventually disk and attack the most programs the most of times leads to the damaging the software components. A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer. The term "virus" is also commonly but erroneously used to refer to other types of malware, adware, and spyware programs that do not have the reproductive ability. A true virus can only spread from one computer to another (in some form of executable code) when its host is taken to the target computer; for instance because a user sent it over a network or the Internet, or carried it on a removable medium such as a floppy disk, CD, DVD, or USB drive. Viruses can increase their chances of spreading to other computers by infecting files on a network file system or a file system that is accessed by another computer.

The term "computer virus" is sometimes used as a catch-all phrase to include all types of malware. Malware includes computer viruses, worms, Trojans, most root kits, spyware, dishonest adware, crimeware, and other malicious and unwanted software, including true viruses. Viruses are sometimes confused with computer worms and Trojan horses, which are technically different. A worm can exploit security vulnerabilities to spread itself to other computers without needing to be transferred as part of a host, and a Trojan horse is a program that appears harmless but has a hidden agenda. Worms and Trojans, like viruses, may cause harm to a computer system's hosted data, functional performance, or networking throughput, when they are executed. Some viruses and other malware have symptoms noticeable to the computer user, but many are surreptitious.

 

NONRESIDENT VIRUSES

Nonresident viruses can be thought of as consisting of a finder module and a replication module. The finder module is responsible for finding new files to infect. For each new executable file the finder module encounters, it calls the replication module to infect that file

 

RESIDENT VIRUSES

Resident viruses contain a replication module that is similar to the one that is employed by nonresident viruses. This module, however, is not called by a finder module. The virus loads the replication module into memory when it is executed instead and ensures that this module is executed each time the operating system is called to perform a certain operation. The replication module can be called, for example, each time the operating system executes a file. In this case the virus infects every suitable program that is executed on the computer.

 

Resident viruses are sometimes subdivided into a category of fast infectors and a category of slow infectors. Fast infectors are designed to infect as many files as possible. A fast infector, for instance, can infect every potential host file that is accessed. This poses a special problem when using anti-virus software, since a virus scanner will access every potential host file on a computer when it performs a system-wide scan. If the virus scanner fails to notice that such a virus is present in memory the virus can "piggy-back" on the virus scanner and in this way infect all files that are scanned. Fast infectors rely on their fast infection rate to spread. The disadvantage of this method is that infecting many files may make detection more likely, because the virus may slow down a computer or perform many suspicious actions that can be noticed by anti-virus software. Slow infectors, on the other hand, are designed to infect hosts infrequently. Some slow infectors, for instance, only infect files when they are copied. Slow infectors are designed to avoid detection by limiting their actions: they are less likely to slow down a computer noticeably and will, at most, infrequently trigger anti-virus software that detects suspicious behavior by programs. The slow infector approach, however, does not seem very successful.

 

STAGES IN COMPUTER VIRAL ATTACK

 

1.      Dormancy stage

2.      Propagation stage

3.      Triggering stage

4.      Damaging stage

 

                                             PREVENTIONS

1.      Safe Sex approach

2.      Use of Anti –virus software.

3.      Application Licensed Software

4.      Computer worms.

                   

WORMS

A computer worm is a self-replicating computer program. It uses a network to send copies of itself to other nodes (computers on the network) and it may do so without any user intervention. Unlike a virus, it does not need to attach itself to an existing program. Worms almost always cause at least some harm to the network, if only by consuming bandwidth, whereas viruses almost always corrupt or devour files on a targeted computer. Computer worms are program that are capable of duplicating themselves usually through the network or mailing list.

They usually slow down the whole time of the computer which consequently results in monetary loss. Worms with good intent

Beginning with the very first research into worms at Xerox PARC there have been attempts to create useful worms. The Nachi family of worms, for example, tried to download and install patches from Microsoft's website to fix vulnerabilities in the host system – by exploiting those same vulnerabilities. In practice, although this may have made these systems more secure, it generated considerable network traffic, rebooted the machine in the course of patching it, and did its work without the consent of the computer's owner or user.

Some worms, such as XSS worms, have been written for research to determine the factors of how worms spread, such as social activity and change in user behavior, while other worms are little more than a prank, such as one that sends the popular image macro of an owl with the phrase "O RLY?" to a print queue in the infected computer.

Most security experts regard all worms as malware, whatever their payload or their writers' intentions.

Protecting against dangerous computer worms

Worms spread by exploiting vulnerabilities in operating systems. All vendors supply regular security updates (see "Patch Tuesday"), and if these are installed to a machine then the majority of worms are unable to spread to it. If a vendor acknowledges a vulnerability, but has yet to release a security update to patch it, a zero day exploit is possible. However, these are relatively rare.

Users need to be wary of opening unexpected email, and should not run attached files or programs, or visit web sites that are linked to such emails. However, as with the ILOVEYOU worm, and with the increased growth and efficiency of phishing attacks, it remains possible to trick the end-user into running a malicious code.

Anti-virus and anti-spyware software are helpful, but must be kept up-to-date with new pattern files at least every few days. The use of a firewall is also recommended.

In the April-June, 2008, issue of IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, computer scientists describe a potential new way to combat internet worms. The researchers discovered how to contain the kind of worm that scans the Internet randomly, looking for vulnerable hosts to infect. They found that the key is for software to monitor the number of scans that machines on a network send out. When a machine starts sending out too many scans, it is a sign that it has been infected, allowing administrators to take it off line and check it for viruses.

                                                                                                                                                                            

 

WAYS OF PREVENTING WORMS.

  • Hindering the  penetrations of system on the network
  • Lock or disallow mainly list
  • Making the penetration of each machine difficult

 


MS - POWER POINT

 

SKILLS FOR TOMORROW CHALLENGES

 
FASTECH COMPUTER INSTITUTE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION TO POWER POINT HAND OUT

 

 

 

 

 

 

Composed And Prepared By Fastech Computers

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

 

1.     INTRODUCTION

2.     WISDOM MESSAGE ( Reason for labour)

3.     Microsoft Power Point (Unleashing)

 

·        The Definition

·        The Use of Microsoft power point

·        The Type of Bars and their functions

·        The tools and their functions

·        Exploration of task pane bar and its functions

 

4.     the Microsoft power point short cut keys and commands

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

IT’S TIME TO UNLEASH YOUR GUTS

Complement of the seasons to you all ell wishers and success lover’s out there. Here comes again another secrete that will make you unleash the hidden treasure right within you. This handbook ‘The secrete in Microsoft Power point’ has come to you as a great opportunity for you to maximize your talents and make them work for you anywhere, anytime, anyhow and on anything. Most especially for all computer studying student who want to be good at it (Microsoft power point).

Like never before, this practical handbook has come to your way and it is your chance and choice to grab it, study it, practice it and also do those presentation and designs by yourself. If you buy this practical handbook, you will experience the power of step-by-step guidelines and the simplicity of its explanatory way. Also I assure you that when you buy this book you will never regret of studying computer and the application software like this one (Microsoft power point).

Beloved, it will be of a great advice and much advisable for you to buy this practical book and use it by following the step-by-step description inside whenever you are with or have free access to computer system. The handbook is specially prepared in a step-by-step practical explanatory to give you the way of doing presentation and the way they are doing it, most especially in the media houses. ‘if you know you have guts within you and you don’t border to maximize it, then you are the problem of yourself’ so, therefore, this is yet another opportunity for you to set loose of those guts and potentials inside you.

 

Thanks

 

 

 

 

 

MICROSOFT POWER POINT

 

Definition & description of Microsoft power point (M.S.P.P)

Microsoft power point is an application package from the member of Microsoft office software, is one of the family of Microsoft office application package that perform with an exiting features. Microsoft power point is one of the most interesting, easy to operate, have a good presentation and give a wonderful output among others of its members.

 

 

Microsoft power point happens to be the best application package using by the media house for presentation. Television station, newspaper, magazine, workshop presenters, seminars data & graphics presentation. This is an exited package that also worked like a graphic design package. Microsoft power point comprises many functions, command and these functions and command has made it one of the most interesting one among others application packages.

There are many bars and function and command in Microsoft power point and they arer very easy to use and to work on . most especially for presentation.

 

USES OF  MICROSOFT POWER POINT:

Microsoft power point is mainly and or basically used for a presentation in the media house and also for the presentation of other things like: (i) T.V presentation, (ii) proposals (iii) company profile (iv) reports (v) Design of gift card (vi) invitation card (vii) wedding card (viii) book back covers (ix) project presentation (x) slide show picture presentation.

 

It has a wide range of uses by the expert i.e those that are good in using it. (Efficiently).

Microsoft power point automatically appears in landscape type of orientation, but it is you that will now change it to the type of orientation in which you want or like to use . i.e Landscape                                            or portrait

 

 

PLEASE READ ME

Understanding Microsoft power point environment

In this environment of Microsoft power point, there are many bars and other things to work with. When you open Microsoft power point page, you see different buttons and bars also you will see different bars (tools) and their functions.

 

Type of bars and their functions (Explanation)

 Bar are like tools which you will use to work with on the Microsoft power point page. They are very important to the extent that you cannot afford to ignore them because you cannot do anything without them. These bars, tools and button give you the direction, the way and the magic steps of how to create things like presentation on Microsoft power point page. Some of these bars will automatically appears wherever you open Microsoft power point, after that you will now then bring out the bars you will like to use in the environment. How? ‘ you will have to right click on the environment ( upside) then one fly out will come out, then move your mouse to the type of bars  you outside and then click n( or mark) on it’. When you perform thus step, the bar will appear on the environment for its uses.

Microsoft power point and Microsoft word have the same function, in Microsoft word when you open it, you will just start typing straight. But in Microsoft power point is not like that; to start typing in Microsoft power point you will have to work with text box. This text box buttons is specially design for Microsoft power point to work with it. The text box is among the tools that appear on drawing bar. But at the same time, when you open a page of Microsoft power point, two of the text box will automatically appear on the page and it will be written ( click to add title) & ( click to add subtitle) on it. i.e inside that box is only where you can and are going to type your data or text. You can also use the text box for picture and then work on it.

 

 

TYPE OF BARS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS.

 

The type of bars and buttons on Microsoft power point page are: Title bar, menu bar, standard bar, formatting bar, control tool bar, drawing bar, outlining bar, picture bar, reviewing bar, revision pane bar, document recovery bar & word art bar. These are the bars and tools to work with on Microsoft power point page. Now let us explore them one after the other band their functions.

 

TITLE BAR:- This is the bar that appear as the first bar on top of the environment. It is the bar that carry  the name of the programme ( package) or file name you are working with.

The bar always appears in blue and light blue colour in most  computers.

 

MENU BAR:- menu bar comprises the buttons and functions that can be mostly use while working on Microsoft power point. The list of the buttons and command are: File, Edit, View, Insert, Format, Tool, slide show, window, help. Menu bar is the bar that caries most of the activities, action, action, function and button to be use while working on the page of Microsoft power point . in these buttons you can get anything you want to use or the command you want to call on while working on the page of Microsoft power point. To get access to the content functions, of  these listed button, all you need doing is to just click on them and the list of its functions will fly out and them you will move to  click on the one you want to use.

 

STANDARD BAR:- This bar caries the list of standard command and button to be used while working on Microsoft power point. It allows you to have the short cut move and access to those important buttons to work with. The bar include the important buttons like; new page, open  ( Existing document), save, E-mail, search, print, print preview, spell & grammar, cut, copy, past, format painter, undo & redo, insert chart, insert table & borders, zoom, close,etc.

 

FORMATTING  BAR:- This bar contains the list of buttons that you can use to format your work done on the page of Microsoft power point. The buttons are : Bold B, underline U,  font (Text) size Button, Alignment (Justify), Right, Centre, Left Justify, force Justify), Text colour Button, Fill Colour of Numbering, etc. all these button are accepted by their icon representing them on the page of Microsoft power point.

 

CONTROL TOOL BAR:- This is one of the bat that support other bars to work together and deliver a good task by the user, the bal allow you to maximize your work. Within the page in which you are working with. But some of the button & command in the control tool box are not commonly use like other button & commands.

 

 DRAWING BAR:-  This bar contain the button you need to use when yoy are working with drawing, object, pictures ,or any other things like graphics. This buttons includes: Text Box, Clip Art Icon, Word Art Button, Auto Shapes, Line, Arrow, Rectangle, Oval ( Circle), Vertical Text Box, insert Diagram & Chart, Fill colour Button, Line colour Button, font Colour Button, Line style Button, rash style button, Arrow style Button, shadow style button, 3-D style Button etc. Theses listed buttons appears on the page environment to represent their function and button can be/ apply by clicking on them (i.e click on the icons).

 

OUTLINING  BAR:- Outlining bar  is also one of the associated bar that is not commonly use on the page of Microsoft power point, except there is especial work or job that will request for the uses of the outline bar. The buttons include in the bar are: Promote, Demote, Move up, move down, collapse, Expand, collapse all, expand all, summary slide & show formatting. So these listed button are not common in use, but only when it is necessary to be used then you will call & click on them.

 

PICTURE BAR:- This bar contain the list of tools and button that allow you to work with picture and assign the picture the way you like. In this bar you can do many things with your picture. They (tools) are: pick Tool, Shaping Tools, Colour Tool, Cropping Tools, Resizing Tool, More contrast, less contract, more & less Brightness, rotate Tool, Line Style, Compress  picture Tool, Re-colour picture tool,  format object tool, set transparent colour, & Reset picture. These buttons & tools appear by their icon and can be access by clicking them when you want to use them.

 

REVIEWING BAR:- This bar is one of the bar that perform a  special task, most especially when you are trying to create a background on/ for your page it will allow you to format the background the way you want it to be. The tools & button include in the bar are: mark-up, Reviewers, previous Items, Next Item, Apply, Unapplied, Insert comment, Edit comment, delete comment, etc.

 

REVISION PANE BAR:- This bar and its content appear like a long box (down) by the right side of the page of your Microsoft power point. The bar contain two main function   i.e Gallery button and list button. These two buttons also contain  in them, their functions and they are: On Gallery ( the preview of a slide presentation and the change. On list ( the preview of slide change and presentation change).

 

TABLE AND BORDERS BAR:- This is one of the important bar that you can use in support to format your work. It allows you to supply border on your page or your work. It allows you to work or create table on your page. It gives you the chance to maximize yourself within its uses capacity. the tools include: Draw (Table pencil), Eraser, border style, border width, border colour, out side Border, Fill colour, table Button, align Top, Align centre, align button, spill cell, change ext Direction, set left to right Arrow, set Right to left arrow etc. all these listed buttons and tools can only be apply when you are working with table and border in your Microsoft power point page (not that).

 

TASK PANE BAR:- This is the most exited bar among others. It has to do with the preparation of presentation and it contains many button, functions, a and styles of presentations. Some of these button and functions are: New presentation, clipboards, insert clip art, slide show, slide layout, slide design slide design template, slide design colour scheme, slide macro, security, visual basic editor,. Control toolbar & Microsoft script editor. There would be no need to go and click on any of the buttons or bring it out when it is not needed to be used.

 

WEB BAR:- This type of bar give you help and support whenever you are working with or on internet and you want to make use of Microsoft power point in carrying out your task. The bar contains the list of buttons to be use. They are: Back & Forward, stop, refresh, start page, search the web, favorite, Go, etc. you will only need to use the bar when you are on net.

 

WORD ART BAR:- This bar perform a magic task just like you are working with drawing packages. The bar can only be use when you are working with text & data.  It gives you the ability to express your interest right within the page without you going into another package to import drawing like text shape and direction  design. The tools & buttons in the bar include: Insert word Art, edit Text, word Art Gallery, format Object, Word Art Shape, word Art Vertical Text, word Art Alignment & word Art Character Spacing.

 

 

 

 

NOW STEP BY STEP UNLEASHING

The power and secrete of (How to……..)

 

To Open Microsoft power point page

Steps:-

·        On the (your) desktop environment, click on start button.

·        Then move  & click on program

·        From the fly out, move to Microsoft power point

·        Then click on it. i.e (left click button on your mouse)

·        Then the page of Microsoft power point will open

 

To create setup or document on Microsoft power point

Steps:-

·        On the menu bar, click on file

·        From the fly out, click on page setup

·        Then the page setup dialogue will appear

·        Click  on paper size

·        Under the paper size click on it & choose a paper size

·        on the orientation side

·        Choose an orientation  i.e portrait                 or landscape

·        On the margin side, then choose option.

·        Then click on ok below, then start working with your new page.

 

To save the or a document

Steps:-

·        On the menu  bar, click on file

·        From the fly-out click on save

·        From the appeared dialogue box

·        Type the file name you want to use (i.e file name)

·        After that the click on save button below

·        Or press enter key on your keyboard.

 

To insert more page

Steps:-

·        On the menu bar

·        Click on insert

·        The move to new slide from the fly-out

·        Then click on it (new slide)

·        Or press ctrl. + m on your keyboard

 

To Duplicate slide

Steps:

·        On the menu bar

·        Click on insert

·        He move to duplicate slide

·        Then click on duplicate slide

 

 

To insert page number

Steps:

·        On the menu bar

·        Click on insert

·        Then move to slide numbering

·        Click on the slide numbering

·        One dialogue box will appear

·        Then follow the action and make choice

·        Perform the same action to get header & footer

 

To insert Date & Time

Steps:-

·        On the menu bar

·        Click on insert

·        The click on date and time

·        The one dialogue box will appears

·        Then follow the action and select option

·        After selecting your option then click on ok or press enter

 

To start typing data on the M.S. Power point page

Steps:

·        When you  open new page

·        Two text box will automatically appear on the page

·        Use your mouse to click on/ inside one of them ( text box)

·         then you can  start typing or imputing data

·        After using the two ( text box) and you need/ want to get another one

·        Then move to the drawing bar below

·        Click on text box, then your mouse will change

·        Then drag the  mouse across to where you want to type or  put data

 

To apply numbering and bullet for a text or group of text

Steps:-

·        On the menu bar, click on format

·        From the fly-out that come out, click on bullet and numbering

·        Then  one dialogue box will appear

·        The from the dialogue box

·        Select the type of bullet you want

·        After that click on ok

·        For numbering, you move to numbering bullet beside bullet

·        Then click on it and select the type of numbering you want

Note: make sure you are on text box before you can access the action and or you make sure you highlight the text  or multiple texts before you take action on it

 

To copy & cut a text group of texts or picturte & images

There  are two ways of copy, cut and paste a text of image

 

(1). By taking through menu bar

Steps:-

·        Highlight or select the text (first)

·        Then on the menu bar, click on edit

·        Then move to copy and click on it

·        Then the text will copy the 1 & 2 action

·        The move to cut and click on it

·        Then if you want to paste, on the menu click on edit and then click on paste anywhere you want it

 

(2) By using your mouse

Steps:

·        Highlight or select the text or image (first)

·        Then with your mouse, right click on it

·        The from the fly-out, click on copy or cut

·        Then if you want to paste, apply the same action and click on paste anywhere you want it.

 

To format text (i.e Bold, Italic, Underline & Alignment)

Steps:-

o       After typing the text, then highlight it

o       The on the formatting bar, click on bold b if you want

o       Click on italic i if you want

o       Click on underline u if you want

 

To apply alignment:

·        Click on any of the four alignments ( i.e lift align, centre align, right align & justify align) depending on your choice.

·        When you perform this action, then the one you want will apply.

 

To insert table on/ into your page

Table can be apply either you are working on text or not

Steps:-

·        On the menu bar, click on insert.

·        Then from the fly-out, click on insert

·        Then a small dialogue box will appear

·        Then transact and input the number of column and row you want

·        Then click on ok or press enter on your keyboard

 

 

To change (fort type) of text

Steps:-

·        After typing the text, highlight it

·        Then move to formatting bar

·        Then click on the arrow beside the font box

·        Then from the (long down) fly-out

·        Click on any style you want

 

To increase or reduce front or text size

Steps:-

§        After typing the text, highlight it

§        Then on the formatting bar

§        Click on font size (i.e. by clicking on the small arrow beside it)

§        Then from the fly-out, select the number of size you want

 

To apply order to text or object, picture & image

Steps:

§        After typing the text or putting the object on the page

§        Duplicate it or put another text or object on top of the original one

§        Then click on one of them

§        Then if you want to apply order (i.e send to back, bring to front, bring forward or send backward)

§        On the drawing bar below, click on draw

§        Then from the fly-out, move to order, then click on it

§        Then from another fly-out that appear

§        Click on the one you want top apply (either; send to back, bring to front, bring forward or send backward).

 

To Insert Picture Or Images

Steps:-

§        On the menu bar, click on insert button

§        Then from the fly-out move to picture

§        Then from another fly-out, select & click where the picture from.

 

OR To get a picture from the environment

Steps:

§        On the task pane bar on your right hand

§        Click on the arrow beside (new presentation)

§        Then from the fly-out, click on insert clip art

§        Then  a section will appear

§        Then click on search and wait for the list of picture to come out

§        Then close the ones you like from it by weather by clicking on it or right click on it or click insert or by drawing it to the page

§        Then the picture or image will appear on your page

 

 To create or setup slide show presentation

Steps:

§        After creating or designing your presentation

§        On the task pane bar, click on the arrow beside it

§        From the fly-out, move to slide transition

§        Then a section of activities will appear

§        Then you will have to follow the action step by step

i.e. by selecting and choosing your choice

§        After  doing choosing and selecting all these things

§        Then click on play below the box to preview the slide you have created

§        Then  to view the slide show

§        Click on the slide show below (play button)

§        If you want the setting to apply to all of your page

§        Then click (apply to all slides) below

 

To put  sound or assign sound to slide show setting

Steps:-

§        On the slide transition button (section)

§        Move to the sound and then click on the arrow beside the box

§        Then select the type of sound you want to use

§        On the same section, to put the type  of transaction

§        Then choose your choice on the first list appear at the top of the section

NOTE: You must connect to a computer speaker before you can hear the sound you have chosen

 

To apply fill colour/ out line colour to object /image

Steps:

§        On the page of your Microsoft power point

§        Draw an object or image like rectangle or oval (circle)

§        On the drawing bar below. Click on auto shape and then select image

§        Then drag it cross the page. Select  it with your pick tool

§        The object or image will be surrounded by small dot (i.e. Nodules)

§        Then on the same drawing bar, click on the arrow beside fill colour or outline colour to select the colour you want, depending on the one you want to do (either fill colour or outline colour)\then the action will apply to the object or image on your page.

 

To apply colour to a text or group of text

Steps:-

§        After typing the text or group of text

§        Highlight the text

§        Then on the formatting bar

§        Click on font colour (click the arrow beside the symbol A)

§        Then select and click on the type of colour you want

 

To apply shadow to a text or grop of text

Steps:

§        After typing the text

§        Highlight the text

§        Then on the formatting bar

§        Click on shadow i.e the symbol S

§        Then  the shadow command will apply to your text

NOTE: The shadow colour of the text you apply cannot be change from the arch colour, it is a permanent default colour for text shadow

 

To apply change case to a text or group of text

§        Change case simply means to change the face/ look of the text from capital letter to small letter or to little case or to small letter.

§        Steps:-

§        After typing the text

§        Highlight the text, then on the menu bars

§        Click on format, then from the fly-out

§        Click on change case the from the dialogue box that appear

§        Select the type of change case you want

§        Then click on ok

 

EXPLORATION OF TASK PANE BAR

Task pane bar comprises of magic buttons and functions. There are also the designs templates you can use without you even have to design anyone; these template also serve as back ground .if you want to use it as background. They are the best use button while creating and or designing presentation. The task pane bar includes:

1.       New presentation             6.       Slide design- design template

2.       Clipboard                       7.       Slide design- colour schemes

3.       Search                            8.       Slide design- animation schemes

4.       Insert clip art                   9.       Custom animation

5.       Slide layout                     10.     Slide Transition

 

These above listed buttons, function & actions are the list of what make up task pane bar and they can be accessed by clicking on small arrow beside on the top of the bar and then select the one you want to work with

       The Description Of Function Button On The Task Pane Bar

 

1       NEW PRESENTATION

This button on gives you the list of function and action to take while and when setting up a new presentation. It gives you chance to choose your setup, how you want it to be, the way you want the presentation to appears and also fit it to your convenience

 

2       CLIPBOARD

This button deals with the importation of another work done from another packages that is related to the present used one.

 

3       SEARCH

This button allow you to locate the (any) hidden object or image or picture, function or data that you may need to use while working on M.S power point page. It also allow you to search for any images from any where in the computer  even in 7your document

 

4.        INSERT CLIP ART:-

This button ( after clicking on it) gives you the list & categories of images, clip art and pictures that you can use for your design. It also gives you the convenience to choose the type of images or pictures you want and then work on them on your page.

 

5.       SLIDE LAYOUT:-

This action gives you the list of page default and the default that you can use in designing your work . it gives you how and the type of arrangement of the page which you would like to use.

 

6.      SLIDE DESIGN- DESIGN TEMPLATE:-

This button gives you the function of a list of samples of presentation as a background template that has be created there as a default for you. Ewhen you click on any one of them it will automatically apply to the page and the you can now edit it to your taste and format it the way you like or want it to be.

 

7.      SLIDE DESIGN – COLOUR SCHEMES:-

This button does the same things with the above (no.6_. but its own special task is that it change the colour  of the background while the design will remain.\

8.     slide design- Animation Schemes:-

this button gives you the opportunity to select the type of animation  you would like to apply to your presentation. There are different types of animation you can choose just be clicking on any one of them and then mopve down to compete the setting. It also allows you to preview it slide show after when you  have selecting your choice.

 

 

9.     CUSTOM ANIMATION

This button gives you the preview of a chosen animation and your final design presentation. It also includes many options inside which you can use in setting up your work and apply it

 

10.                        SLIDE TRANSITION:-

This button and it functions the most exited and interested one that combine all of other button, preview their activities and also deliver the final task on the task pane bar. It includes the list of animation types, the sound  types, the speed setting, the slide setting and many more. This button also gives you the chance to create  presentation to suite your own taste and convenience by following the option  and the function one after the other. This section is the ion that gives you the final solution of any presentation you may which to create, that is after assigning it on your  Microsoft power point page.

 

 

 

THE SCHORTCUT KEYS AND COMMANDS IN  MICROSOFT POWER POINT 

Most of the shortcut keys and commands in Microsoft word are performing the name action and functions. But there are some of its own (Microsoft power point) that perform different or another action or functions.

 

NOTE: always highlight or select the text or image whenever you want  to apply any of these shortcut  keys and commands to a text, or group of text or any image.

 

ACTION ON KEYBOARD

FUNCTIONS

Ctrl + N

 To open new document

Ctrl +  O

 To open an existing document

Ctrl + S

 To save a document freshly

Ctrl +P

 To print a document or job

Ctrl + A

 To select all or highlight all on page together

Ctrl + F

 To find a word or text on the page

Ctrl + H

 To replace word or text on the page

Ctrl + C

 To copy text, image or picture

Ctrl + X

 To cut text, image, or picture

Ctrl + V

 To paste text, image or picture

Ctrl + D

 To duplicate

Ctrl + M

To insert more page

Ctrl + L

To align left

Ctrl + E

 To align centre

Ctrl + R

 To align right

 Ctrl + Y

 To repeat new blank presentation

Ctrl + F3

 To change case of text

Ctrl + Shift + >

 To increase text size`

Ctrl + Shift + <

To reduce text size`

F5

 To view slide show

F6

 To view next pane

 F7

 To check spell & grammar

 

                        

 

 

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